TOKSASKAROZ (toxascarosis; synonym toxascaridosis) — the helminthosis from group of nematodoses which is characterized by dispeptic frustration and allergic manifestations.
At animal T. it is widespread everywhere; occurs at the person seldom. In the USSR isolated cases of a disease are described. The activator — Toxascaris leonina (Linstow, 1902) Leiper, 1907, parasitizes in a small bowel of dogs, foxes, polar foxes and other carnivores (obligate owners), occasionally at people (optional owners). The nematode of light yellow color, has narrow side kutikulyarny wings on the head end of a body. Length of a male is 40 — 60 mm, females — 55 — 120 mm. Eggs roundish with a smooth thick cover, 75 in size — 85 m of km in the diameter. Inside the egg which is just allocated with excrements there is a formative cell (fig). Eggs T. leonina allocated with excrements of obligate owners ripen in the environment at t ° 30 ° and sufficient humidity in 3 days.
Infection of the person occurs at the use of food and water contaminated by the excrements of animals containing eggs of helminth.
The mature eggs swallowed by the person leave larvae, to-rye later migration within several days in an intestinal wall are returned to a gleam of intestines where turn into an imago; larvae from intestines can gematogenno migrate in internals and fabrics and there to be encapsulated.
At the person distinguish T., caused by the migrating larvae, and T., caused by puberal helminths; both forms of a disease are studied insufficiently.
T., caused by larvae, it is characterized by emergence of eosinophilic infiltrates in lungs (see. Lefflera syndrome ), granulomas in various bodies and fabrics (see. Granuloma ), eosinophilia, leukocytosis. The diagnosis is established by data serol. reactions, in particular reaction of indirect hemagglutination. Treatment is carried out mintezoly (thiabendazole) on 25 mg/kg a day cycles for 3 — 7 days.
Wedge, picture T., caused by puberal forms, it is shown by nausea, vomiting, abdominal pains, an eosinophilia. There are single observations when puberal T. leonina found in abscesses of hypodermic cellulose. The diagnosis is confirmed by detection of eggs of the activator in excrements of the patient. For treatment of T. apply piperazin adipate, as at an ascaridosis (see. Ascaridosis, treatment ).
Forecast T. usually favorable.
Prevention T. consists in periodic deworming of dogs, prohibition of keeping of these animals in the territory of child care facilities, respect for personal hygiene (washing of hands before food, etc.).
See also Nematodoses .
Bibliography: Greenberg A. I. Exceptional cases of an invazirovaniye of the person of Toxascaris leonina u Toxocara mystax, Medical parasite of l., t. 30, No. 5, page 626, 1961; The Multivolume guide to microbiology, clinic and epidemiology of infectious diseases, under the editorship of H. N. Zhukova-Verezhnp-kova, t. 9, page 659, M., 1968.
V. K. Karnaukhov.