TOGO, the Togolese Republic — the state in the Western Africa. Territory of 56,6 thousand km 2 . Population of 2,6 million people (1981). The capital — Lome (apprx. 350 thousand zhit. with suburbs, 1981). Administrative division — 5 areas, to-rye are subdivided into 21 prefectures.
Ofits. language — French.
At the end of 19 century Germany established over T. the protectorate. During World War I England and France occupied this territory. The British Togo and the French Togo became since 1922 mandated, and since 1946 — wards territories. In 1957. The British Togo was a part of Ghana, and the French Togo was proclaimed on April 27, 1960 the independent state — the Togolese Republic. Executive power belongs to the president and the government headed by it, legislative — to national assembly.
The climate is subequatorial, on the coast — with two periods of a maximum of rainfall (March — June and September — October), in the depth of the country — with one rainy summer period (since April — May till September — October) and dry winter. Average monthly temperature from 20 to 32 °. Annual amount of precipitation from 750 to 1500 mm.
T. — the developing agrarian country. In economy the foreign capital dominates. In agriculture, a cut produces 45% of gross national product, it is busy apprx. 90% of the amateur population. Small-scale semi-subsistence country enterprises prevail. Large plantations on cultivation of export cultures belong to the foreign and mixed capital. The industry is presented by the small enterprises for processing of page - x. raw materials. In the country there is a small steelmaking enterprise and the oil refinery, development of phosphates is conducted under control of the state.
The main population — the people of Guinean tongue group (Ewe, a mine, uat, Faure, hell; a) and group gur (kabra, gurma, moba, losso). Annual average vital rates of T. in 1979, according to experts of the UN: birth rate 49, the general mortality 19, a natural increase 30 for 1000 of the population; child mortality in 1979 — 1980 90 on 1000 live-born; the average duration of the forthcoming life — 46 years.
In incidence of the population the leading place is taken by infectious and parasitic diseases. In 1980 in the country 280124 cases of malaria, 5200 cases of an amebiasis, 5103 cases of a schistosomatosis, 1987 cases of a filariasis, 1739 cases of an ankilostoidoz were registered. Incidence of tuberculosis is high. In 1980 208 fresh cases of a pulmonary tuberculosis were revealed. Also cases of poliomyelitis, trachoma, leprosy are registered. The most frequent children's infections are chicken pox, whooping cough, measles, scarlet fever, and also diseases of a hyponutrient and intestinal helminthoses.
The health service in the country is headed by the Ministry of public health care, under the direction of to-rogo the National council of public health care coordinating participation of other ministries, departments and organizations in questions of public health care functions. Also questions of planning of health care enter its tasks.
In 1978 in the country functioned 63 stationary to lay down. institutions on 2850 beds (11,8 on 10 000 population). From them 7 BCs of the general type on 1763 beds: therapeutic beds 365, surgical — 432, maternity — 289, pediatric — 366, ophthalmologic — 6, otorhinolaryngological — 26, traumatologic — 52, for TB patients and inf. diseases — 227. Besides, in 1978 in the country there were 13 rural and local BCs on 815 beds, and also 40 medical centers on 200 beds. Except above-mentioned to lay down. institutions would be available 1 psychiatric on 23 beds and 2 leper colonies on 50 beds.
The ambulatory care is given to the population of the country in polyclinic departments of BC, in the medical centers, and also the centers of health care, to-rykh in 1978 there were 288. The population of the most remote districts is serviced by mobile crews of health care. The name and content of work of healthcare institutions in T. not always correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see. Treatment and prevention facilities abroad ).
In 1980 in T. 139 doctors (0,5 for 10 000 population), 94 medical assistants, 4 stomatologists, 23 druggists, 263 midwifes, 269 assistants to midwifes, 773 nurses, 400 assistants to nurses worked.
Doctors are trained at medical school un-that. National schools of assistants to doctors, midwifes, auxiliary workers of health care function, to-rye let out assistants to doctors, nurses, technicians-orthopedists and auxiliary medics.
Bibliography: The sixth review of a condition of health care in the world of 1973 — 1977, the p. 2, page 74, Geneva, WHO, 1981; World health statistics annual 1978, v. 3, p. 15, Geneva, 1979; World health statistics annual, Infectious diseases, cases, p. 12, Geneva, 1979; World health statistics annual, Health personnel and hospital establishments, p. 34, Geneva, 1980.
A. A. Rozov.