TOBACCO PRODUCTION — an industry on cultivation and drying of tobacco, fermentation and processing of raw materials, production of tobacco and tobacco products. Implementation of industrial methods in cultivation of tobacco changed the nature of work of working: level of a metabolic cost decreased, neuroemotional loading increased, the contact with pesticides and volatile substances increased tobacco (see).
In hotbeds and greenhouses at cultivation of seedling air of a working zone is characterized by high temperature and relative humidity. Specific feature of working conditions in hotbeds with bioheating is potential danger of infection and the gelmintny invasion working, and in greenhouses with air-gas heating — influence of carbon monoxide (see) and impurity of the hydrocarbons (see) coming to air. On tobacco plantations can influence workers solar radiation (see), tobacco pollen, soil dust (see), pesticides (see), noise (see) and vibration (see).
Drying and processing of leaves on drying complexes, fermentation in cameras, installations of continuous action and on product lines are carried out at high temperature and allocation in air of a working zone of volatile substances (nicotine, essential oils, methyl alcohol). At tobacco factories processing of tobacco, its transformation into a fiber and production of tobacco products is followed by dust formation, noise and vibration. Tobacco dust (maximum allowable concentration — 3 mg/m3), finely divided, high ash content, contains various impurity (the soil, quartz, pesticides, nicotine); it possesses the toxic, fibrogenny, irritating and allergic action.
At non-compliance a dignity. - a gigabyte. standards on Other at workers development of the prof. of a nicotinism is possible (see. Toxicomanias ). Nikotin (see) and other components of tobacco exert impact on a nervous system, sexual function, closed glands and function of a liver, promoting development of endocrine frustration, vegeto-vascular dystonia, a cardioneurosis, gepatokholi-tsistopatiya, colitis, etc. Diseases of mucous membranes of eyes, upper respiratory tracts, a liver, a nervous system can develop. At workers Other disturbances of a menstrual cycle are possible (see).
Prevention of an adverse effect of production factors at all stages Other shall be complex and be based on the general and industry a dignity. rules and standards. Dignity. - tekhn. actions include rational interposition of industrial buildings and production rooms, sound isolation and sealing of the equipment, aeration (see), the device of local suctions, implementation of devices of air conditioning (see); mechanization of process of sorting of sheet tobacco and its transformation into a fiber; improvement of methods of moistening and cooling of tobacco etc. To medical - a dignity. to actions preliminary and periodic medical examinations according to the order M3 USSR belong (see. Medical examination), current dignity. supervision of working conditions (see Labor protection), use of respirators (see), overalls (see Clothes special) and other individual means of protection (see). Work of teenagers in Other is prohibited. Workers are provided to lay down. - the prof. food and additional issue.
Bibliography: Vlasov P. F. Ventilation, air conditioning and a delivery funnel at tobacco factories, M., 1963; Questions of occupational health, professional pathology and industrial toxicology, under the editorship of R. N. Mandzh-galadze, page 65, Tbilisi, 1966; Occupational health in modern agriculture, under the editorship of Ya. B. Reznik, page 17, Chisinau, 1978; Kazangapova K. B. The working conditions of tobacco growers influencing dynamics of incidence of a tobacco dermatosis, Zdravookhr. Kazakhstan, No. 7, page 13, 1978; S. K. Poles and I am a N with at p the island and AA. 3. Influence of nicotine on an organism of workers of tobacco curing barns and measure for improvement of working conditions, Gigabyte. work and the prof. having got sick., No. 12, page 42, 1962; Sprinchan G. K. Occupational health on the mechanized tobacco-growing complexes, in the same place, No. 8, page 20, 1978.
G. K. Sprinchan, G. G. Rud.