TOBACCO (Nicotiana) — sort of plants this. a nightshade family, including more than 60 types.
Distinguish T. cultural, or smoking (N. tabacum), and rustic tobacco. Grow up also T. four-folding (N. quadrivalvis), T. sticky (N. glutinosa), etc. Sometimes the population uses leaves of nek-ry wild-growing T for smoking., napr, panicled (N. pannicu-lata), forest (N. silvestris). In decorative gardening cultivate views with large or odorous flowers — T. winged (N. alata), T. N. sanderae, T. fragrant (N. suaveolens), etc.
T. grew up in America long before opening it Europeans. To Europe (Spain, Portugal, France, Germany, Italy) this plant was delivered at the end of 15 century and at first grown up as decorative and medicinal. To Russia T. got at the beginning of 17 century; the first tobacco plantations were put in 1716 in Ukraine.
Around the world in 1961 — 1974 under T. 3,9 — 4,2 million hectares, and the biggest areas were engaged in China, India, the USA, Indonesia, Turkey.
The USSR cultivates 2 types of T. V of Moldova, in Ukraine, in the republics of Transcaucasia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Krasnodar Krai, etc. under T. in 1961 —-1974 150 — 170 thousand hectares were busy; an average crop of 11 — 15 c with 1 hectare.
From leaves of T. develop tobacco products, quality to-rykh depends on their chemical structure; leaves contain proteins (3,6 — 14,5%), carbohydrates (3,7 — 21,3%), free ammonia (0,11 — 0,87%), the general nitrogen (2,12 — 3,06%), nicotine (0,62 — 9,9%), anabasine, pyrrolidine, pyridine, picoline, the free bases (0,04 — 0,9%), polyphenols (2,75 — 9,8%), pitches (5,4 — 14,0%), essential oils (0,13 — 2,0%), pectic substances (13,4 — 20,5%), methyl alcohol (0,4 — 1,4%), organic to - you (10,0 — 12,0%), ashes (10,9 — 17,7%), and also in insignificant quantities arsenic, nickel, cadmium, lead, chrome, manganese, nitrosamines.
Smoke T. — difficult physical. - the chemical system consisting of firm and gas phases. The solid phase consists of sootflakes. The chemical composition of tobacco smoke depends on quality of products — the smoke of a cigarette which passed through filters contains less pitch (acetate — for 30 — 50%, paper — for 10 — 20%) and nicotine (for 25 — 30%). At a temperature of cigarette of 700 — 800 ° pass carbon monoxide, aldehydes, ethers, alcohols, phenols, amines, nicotine, piperidine, pyridine into a gas phase of smoke, pyrrol, quinoline, acetic and ant to - you, acrolein, polyphenols, brown pigments, 3, 4-benz (and) pyrene, nitric oxides, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, trioxide of arsenic, nickel, chrome, cadmium. Toxicity of T. and smoke is defined first of all nicotine (see).
Smoking of tobacco
Smoking of tobacco — the addiction, edges can entail change of behavioural reactions, stimulation of secretion of the corticosteroids operating on brain functions. On an organism of the smoker smoke T. has toxic effect. The temporary tonic effect of nicotine during the smoking can cause exhaustion of nervous cells, decrease in working capacity (see. Toxicomanias ).
Prevalence of smoking is influenced by a way of life, level of the general and a dignity. cultures of the population, sex, age, profession, climatic conditions, etc. Among men a habit to smoke T. was fixed earlier, than at women. Most of people begin to smoke at teenage age under the influence of an example of adults or because of imaginary prestigiousness, tendency to imitate, of aspiration to maturation. Genetic predisposition to smoking is disputed, but dependence of tendency to it on genetically caused psychological warehouse of the person is noted. Effect of nicotine, adaptation to it of an organism and force of a habit belongs to the reasons of further continuation of smoking.
There are data that smoking reduces life expectancy and increases mortality of the population; the smoking men die (in comparison with non-smoking) of different diseases earlier; smoking promotes development of heart diseases and vessels. Level of cardiovascular incidence grows with increase in quantity of the smoked cigarettes.
Etiopatogenetichesky mechanisms of development of coronary heart disease (see) and an endarteritis (see. Obliterating defeats of vessels of extremities) during the smoking are caused by impact on vessels of carbon monoxide and nicotine. Among smokers atherosclerosis is more widely widespread (see). Connection between smoking and quinsies, hron is established. bronchitis, pneumonia, emphysema of lungs. At long smoking in lungs the diffusion sclerosis develops (tabakonioz), ventilation of the lungs decreases. The risk degree of development of cancer of lung during the smoking is closely connected with number of the smoked cigarettes, age and duration of smoking. Lung cancer (see) arises more often during the smoking of cigarettes without filter or cigarettes with the filter with the high content of pitch. There are data that smoke T. irritates mucous membranes, weakens sense of smell and flavoring feelings, increases hypersalivation, loosens gingivas, promotes their bleeding and formation of ulcers on a mucous oral cavity, damages enamel of teeth and destroys dentine. At a nicotinism at smokers the peptic ulcer of a stomach and duodenum develops more often (see. Peptic ulcer ), spastic catarral condition of intestines. Tobacco allergoses are described. Tobacco smoking increases incidence with disability. Influence of smoking on specific functions of a female body is noted: during pregnancy smoking increases risk of an abortion, premature births, complications of a course of pregnancy; accelerates approach of a menopause and oppresses sexual activity.
For public health «passive smoking» — forced inhalation non-smoking saved up in products of smoking matters. At the children staying in the smoked room, a thicket adenoides, tonsillitis, pneumonia are observed.
Prevention and treatment of tobacco smoking
the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of June 12, 1980. «About measures for strengthening of fight against smoking» the wide comprehensive program is provided: an explanation of an adverse effect of smoking on health, creation of public opinion against smoking and unacceptable conditions for distribution of smoking; expansion of scientific research on research of effective remedies and methods of controlling with smoking; improvement of the out-patient and polyclinic help to the persons who showed willingness to leave off smoking; taking a step on reduction in production of filterless cigarettes. Dignity. education shall be directed to strengthening of anti-nicotinic promotion. Fight against smoking shall be a component of the general education, be carried out in parallel with a package of measures for esthetic and physical training. Also individual help in overcoming a habit of smoking, use of methods of group treatment matters.
Specific to lay down. measures — psychotherapy, hypnosis, acupuncture, medicamentous aversionnaya therapy by disgust (greasing and rinsing of an oral cavity tincture of nutgalls, tannin, silver nitrate, etc.), medicamentous and replaceable (cytisine, that-beks, Pilocarpinum, lobelias, lobesil, an anabazpna a hydrochloride), medicamentous and auxiliary (the drugs similar on pharmakol. to action with nicotine, napr, nicotinic chewing gum). From smoking apply sedatives, tranquilizers, psychostimulants to simplification of failure.
Bibliography: Aronov D. M. Modern ideas of influence of smoking on cardiovascular system, Rubbed. arkh., t. 50, 4, page 117, 1978; Fight against epidemic of smoking, the Report of Committee of WHO experts on fight against smoking, the lane with English, M., 1980; Dmitriyev M. T. Hygienic assessment of tobacco smoke, Zdravookhr. Belarus, No. 10, page 25, 1980; Smoking and its influence on health, Report of Committee of WHO experts, Geneva, 1976; Serebrov A. I. Smoking of tobacco and cancer of a lung, Owls. medical, No. 7, page 109, 1973; A. G Is firm. Chronic nicotinism (tobacco smoking) and its treatment, M., 1958.
G. G. Rud, G. K. Sprinchan.