TIMIRYAZEV Kliment Arkadyevich (1843 — 1920) — the outstanding domestic biologist, the physiologist of plants, one of the first supporters and propagandists of Darwinism in Russia, the corresponding member of the St. Petersburg academy of Sciences (1890).
Graduated the auditor from natural department physical and mathematical f-that St. Petersburg un-that (1865), it was sent to a training abroad (1868 — 1870) where worked in Heidelberg (Germany) in R. W. Bunsen's laboratory and listened to lectures in Paris at J. Boussingault. Protected master (1871) and doctor's (1875) theses in St. Petersburg un-those. Since 1869 the teacher, and since 1871 extraordinary professor, in 1875 — 1892 ordinary professor of Petrovsky agricultural and forest academy (nowadays Agricultural academy of K. A. Timiryazev) and Moscow un-that (1878 — 1911). Since 1902 zasl. professor, in 1911 left un-t in protest at reactionary reforms of the minister of education of Ka-sso. After Great October socialist revolution it was rehabilitated professors, ito because of a disease could not work in un-those.
The main scientific works of K. A. Timiryazev were devoted to studying of processes of photosynthesis of plants. Having applied a method of a spectral analysis, K. A. Timiryazev for the first time proved dependence of activity of photosynthesis on intensity of light, having established that an important role is played at the same time red and partly by blue beams of a light range. In scientific and teaching activity K. A. Timiryazev paid much attention to questions of use of data of physiology of food of plants for improvement of practice of agriculture. In 1872 he together with I. A. Stebut for the first time in Russia organized a vegetative lodge for studying of chemical substances, necessary for a plant. In the lectures and public statements it explained need of use of fertilizers and lit measures of fight against the drought which was often the reason of hunger in pre-revolutionary Russia.
K. A. Timiryazev was engaged in promotion and promoting in Russia of Ch. Darvin's doctrine. Its articles published in the Domestic Notes magazine (e.g., «Darwin book, her critics and commentators», 1864), formed the basis of the book «Ch. Darwin and His Doctrine», edges was repeatedly republished and played an outstanding role in promotion of Darwinism in Russia. K. A. Timiryazev repeatedly acted with protection of Darwinism against attacks and criticism of the Russian anti-Darwinians (N. Ya. Danilevsky, H. N. Strakhova, etc.). At the same time iod influence of the English orthodox Darwinians he took a contradictory position in the relation mendelism (see) and the mutational theory (see. Theory of evolution ). Recognizing enormous value for understanding of evolution of organisms of the patterns opened by G. Mendel, K. A. Timiryazev underestimated their universality in the organic world. In this regard his authority was used by opponents of modern geneticists (see).
K. A. Timiryazev was a brilliant popular writer of materialistic scientific knowledge, it published a number of works on history of biological sciences and natural sciences in general; analyzed development of a historical method and its role in scientific methodology («A historical method in biology», 1922).
Steadily opposing ideological perversions in biology, especially vitalism, K. A. Timiryazev quite often paid a tribute to hobby of the youth — to positivism. K. A. Timiryazev who grew up in the conditions of revolutionary-democratic trends of the 60th of 19 century carried by through all the life devotion to these ideals, courageously upholding them in the conditions of bans and persecutions at the imperial mode. He enthusiastically met Great October socialist revolution and, despite a disease, at once got into gear of the scientific and educational organizations of the Soviet power. He was elected the full member of Socialist academy, the member of the State academic council of Narkompros, the deputy of the Moscow Council. Having studied the latest book of K. A. Timiryazev «Science and democracy» (1920), V. I. Lenin wrote it: «I was delighted directly, reading your notes against the bourgeoisie and for the Soviet power» (V. Lenin, half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 51, page 185).
To K. A. Timiryazev will erect a monument in Moscow; his name is appropriated to the Moscow agricultural academy and Ying-that phytophysiologies of Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
The Academy of Sciences of the USSR founded an award of K. A. Timiryazev for the best works in the field of phytophysiology; Timiryazevsky readings are annually carried out; in the former apartment of K. A. Timiryazev the museum is organized. K. L. Timiryazev was a member London royal about-va, and also the member of many domestic and foreign scientific about - century.
Works: Compositions, t. 1 — 10, M., 1937 - 1940.
Bibliography: Gaysinovich A. E. Perception of a mendelism in Russia and its role in development of Darwinism, the Nature, No. 9, page 42, 1982; V. L. Mosquitoes, Mack with and m about in N. A. and To at z N of e-c about in B. G. Kliment Arkadyevich Timiryazev, M., 1945; II about in and to about in S. A. Timiryazev, M. — JI., 1946; K. A. Timiryazev's Memories, Saturday. dokl. and materials sess. biol. in-that of K. A. Timiryazev, it is devoted. to the 15 anniversary from the date of K. A. Timiryazev's death, M. — L., 1936; C e t of l and N of Hp, K. A. Timiryazev, Mi., 1945.
A. E. Gaysinovich.