From Big Medical Encyclopedia

TIMING PHYSIOLOGICAL (Greek chronos time + metreo to measure, measure) — set of methods and gages of temporary parameters of any physiological processes. It is widely used in physiology of work (see), physiology of sport (see Physical culture and sport), psychophysiology (see Physiology) and neurophysiology (see).

In physiology of work X. t. it is applied as a method of studying of a work breakdown on performance of the repeating manual and machine and manual elements of labor operations with the purpose of establishment of duration of operation, calculation of norms of time and development, selection of the most rational receptions and the modes of performance of operations, characteristics of intensity of working process. X. t. allows to estimate also the level of working capacity (see Work).

In physiology of sport of X. t. gives the chance to estimate duration, speed of implementation of sports behavioural acts, napr, locomotory (walking, run, jumps), their stages, elements and pauses between them that allows to judge the sports equipment and to make recommendations to its improvement. For medical control (see) physiological timing it is used during the definition of intensity of occupation or a physical education class («density» of a lesson).

In psychophysiology and neurophysiology of X. t. it is used for measurement of time emergency direct, napr, the motive, or verbal reactions created on the basis of the preliminary instruction. The verbal instruction sets the purpose of action consisting in most quick response, napr, the movement (start reaction) or the termination of the begun movement (stop reaction) on in advance caused signal: information starting incentive (start signal) or the stopping incentive (stoplight). At the same time the eclipse period from the beginning of action of an incentive prior to response (so-called time of reaction) is measured. Along with single-element reactions the timing of multielement (consecutive) reactions is carried out. As time of reaction of the person is characterized by wide variability, results of timing of the emergency reactions are exposed to statistical processing; in the newest measuring instruments of time of reaction (hronorefleksometra) equipped with portable computers or an exit to the COMPUTER it is carried out automatically. The research of time of reaction gained great applied value in air, space and sports medicine, human engineering and a clinical psychoneurology. The partition of the behavioural act on the timed pieces and the analysis of the obtained data is carried out according to the theoretical concept recently To. V. Sudakova

about so-called system quantization of purposeful behavior of animals and the person, in particular labor operations, sports behavioural acts, etc. At the same time the studied process is dismembered on sistemokvant of activity with intermediate and final results.

Not only the received results, but also indicators corresponding to them som-tovegetativnye are registered, timed and analyzed that allows to judge formation and streamlining of the behavioural act.

Main means of X. t. in physiology of work the stop watch with scale interval 0,1 sec. is. This simple chronometer continues to find broad application and in physiology of sport where, however, the chronometers providing measurement of time in santisekunda (0,01 sec.) are even more often used recently.

At X. t. also the hronokinosjemka is used. The movie camera set in motion by the synchronous electric motor or the usual movie camera taking readings of a chronometer along with the examinee is for this purpose applied. For researches of a trajectory of movements of the person with their considerable amplitude and for the whole running cycle the cyclographical method is used (see Tsiklografiya). At the same time register a trajectory of the shining minibulb strengthened on that part of a body, the movement the cut is investigated. For studying of the direction of the movement, its time or speed the breaker is entered into an electric chain that turns a continuous trajectory into discontinuous — a hronotsiklogramma.

The telemetric equipment is used to registration of vegetative indicators of the person in labor and sports processes (see Telemetry). In vitro for the similar purposes various multichannel recorders (chronographs) are used.

Since 70th 19 century and prior to the beginning of the 50th 20 century used the electromechanical device to measurement of time of reaction of the person — a chronoscope. Then hronorefleksometra came to Skhmena to it.

The elementary electronic hrono-refleksometr contains the measuring instrument of time, sources of stimulation, the synchronizer, sensors of the experimenter, examinee and the intensifying and converting block. The type of the vremyaizmeritelny device is chosen depending on the size of the measured intervals and required accuracy. Modern hrono-refleksometrichesky methods are counted on measurement of the minimum time terms reaching thousand fractions of a second (e.g., during the definition of temporary shifts between components of reaction). Calculating and pulse chronometers with digital indication are most convenient. The measuring instrument constructed on the principle of pulse counting consists of two basic elements: a source of electric fluctuations (the setting generator) and a recounting circuit. The first develops strictly certain number of fluctuations in a second, and the second — a series of equidistant square-wave pulses and counts their number. Determine a required interval of time by quantity of the impulses which passed in a recounting circuit.

Blocks of stimulation of modern hronorefleksometr allow to create visual (light, color, moving, film projection), sound, electric and verbal (verbal, written) signals separately and in the combinations determined by the timing unit. Also duration, intensity of irritants and intervals between them under the periodic or accidental law is programmed.


Nek-rye's CRYSTALLINE LENS from modern hronorefleksometr are expected on X. t. time of reaction in conditions when the examinee is from the experimenter at a great distance. In such cases apply so-called telekhronorefleksometra. They are provided with the specialized duplex radio line consisting of transceivers of the experimenter and examinee. By means of the modern hronorefleksometrichesky equipment measurement of the eclipse period of the active termination of already begun reaction is possible: motive, respiratory or verbal. Various hronorefleksomet-richesky multiinstrument complexes and separate devices are developed for these purposes: TV

hronorefleksometrichesky TXPM-K-1 complex, complex hronoreflek-sometrichesky KHR-01, elektromio-refleksometr EMR-01, measuring instrument of consecutive reactions of the International Party of Russia-01, neurotachometer of NT-01 and generator of signals irritations GSR-01. Resolving power of measuring instruments of time of all devices 10“ 4 sec.; digital indication is applied; there are exits for documentary registration by tsifropechatayushchy car and chernilopishushchy recorders. Nek-ry complexes and devices contain computer blocks and blocks of program giving of incentives, including using the television and film projection equipment.

Bibliography: Brisk. I. Vremya of reaction of the person, M., 1964; B about to with e r O. Ya. and

Klevtsov of M. I. Radiorefleksomet-riya, M., 1963; B about to with e r O. Ya. and With at d joint stock company about in K. V. Systems analysis of motor reactions of the person in different duties of the purposeful behavioural act, Usp. fiziol. sciences, t. 12, No. 1, page 3, 1981; S. I. Pots, 3 about l and N and 3. M and Moykinya. B. Techniques of researches in physiology of work, page 279, M., 1974; Zbikhorskiyz. The organization of a workplace, in book: Ergonomics, Problems of adaptation of working conditions to the person, under the editorship of V. Vend, the lane with polsk., page 282, M., 1971; The Reference book on human engineering, under the editorship of B. F. Lomov, M., 1982; K. V Pike perches. New aspects of the theory of functional system, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, Kya 2, page 3, 1982; Shpolyan-s to and y V. A. Hronometriya, M., 1974;

WynnV. T. Reaction time as a function of the cardiac cycle, Brit. J. Psychol., v. 71, p. 155, 1980. O. Ya. Bokser.