From Big Medical Encyclopedia

TIFLOTEKHNIKA (Greek typhlos blind + techne art, skill, ability) — set of the devices, devices and systems offsetting absolute or considerable loss of sight. At absolutely blind compensation is carried out by replacement of visual information with the adequate incentives perceived by other sense bodys, hl. obr. touch and hearing. At persons with residual sight visual information will be transformed so that to provide her perception with analyzers.

Depending on appointment typhlo-technical means subdivide into devices for orientation and mobility, means of information support, means for the prof. of training and work, an educational tiflotekhnika, special means of correction for persons with the lowered sight, devices of cultural and community appointment and devices for deafblinds.

Devices for orientation and mobility facilitate the blind person independent and safe movement. The most widespread and effective remedy of orientation is the white cane, edges at the same time serves as the warning sign for drivers of transport. An indispensable condition during the use of a cane is training of blind persons in orientation and mobility in the special rehabilitation centers, schools of recovery of working ability of blind people (see. Society of blind people ). Except a white cane, for orientation at movement blind persons use sound reference points, electronic locators, compasses with tactile designations, relief maps and plans, and also the ultrasonic, laser and infrared locators which are structurally issued in the form of points, canes, manual devices like a lamp and figurative devices. In All-Union research in-those medical instrument making are created the manual ultrasonic locator and the infrared device signaling about obstacles along the line of the blind person.

Means of information support of blind people are intended for independent reading the printing mass media, educational and special literature and other information sources executed in a visual form.

The important communication medium of blind people is the relief and dot font offered in 1829 by L. Braille. By means of the Braille font blind people obkhme-nivatsya by written information for what use cliches, slate pencils with a needle, the Braille typewriters and dense thick paper. Written communication with sighted people is carried out by means of special cliches for the flat letter or ordinary typewriters.

For blind people special books with use of the Braille font are published. A lack of the Braille books is their bulkiness and high cost of production. These shortcomings electronic information systems for blind people where the text registers in the form of a code in the magnetic carrier (a tape or a disk) are deprived and is reproduced by means of electromechanical Braille displays. The wide spread occurance of new systems is interfered by complexity of devices for reproduction of code editions. The most mass and available information means for blind persons is the «speaking book» system: the books, magazines and other editions which are written down on a magnetic tape and phonograph records with a long time of sounding. In the USSR the Braille and sound books extend through network of special libraries for blind people.

For the purpose of expansion of access for blind people to printing editions the devices allowing blind persons to read independently the usual printing text are created. The specified devices are subdivided into two classes. Devices belong to the first class, to-rye will transform the image of signs directly to the forms available to perception by blind people (by means of tactile or sound analyzers). Use of such devices demands considerable efforts and preliminary training. Devices of the second class, or the reading cars, avtokhmatichesk distinguish signs of the text and will transform them to the Braille symbols or the synthesized speech. A serious lack of similar systems — their complexity and high cost.

Creation of means for the prof. of training and work of blind people allows to carry out successful labor rehabilitation of visually impaired persons in the USSR. It is in many respects caused production tiflotekhniky (the equipment, machines, the industrial equipment), providing the optimum hygienic and ergonomic conditions at the industrial enterprises and in institutions promoting productive work.

The technical means intended for blind workers of intellectual work turn on calculators with rechevsh and Braille exits, the equipment of interaction of the blind operator with the COMPUTER, individual information systems on the basis of the microcomputer. In Uralsk un-those and special design bureau All-Russian about-va blind people are created original devices for reading by blind people punched cards and punched tapes and other systems for blind programmers.

The educational tiflotekhnika is used in the course of training of blind children. Relief visual aids from sheet plastic, volume models of solids, special measuring devices with tactile and sound exits, tools for work, devices for drawing and drawing, etc. concern to her.

Special means of correction for persons with the lowered sight unlike the usual corrective spectacles and contact lenses transferring the main focus to a retina change parameters of the image (the sizes, brightness, contrast) to compensate disturbances of these or those functions of the visual analyzer. The transferred funds turn on devices for correction of sharpness and a field of vision, various not optical devices, and also special sets and the equipment for selection of means of correction of the lowered sight. Decrease in visual acuity (see) it is compensated by the increasing optical and television devices, in quality to-rykh use along with specially developed medical products, napr, a telescopic and mikroskopny spectacles, points with strong plus lenses — hyper eyepieces (see. Points ), optical means of the general use (field-glasses, monoculars, magnifying glasses). For expansion of a field of vision (see) and corrections of a hemianopsia (see) are applied the turned telescopic systems, prisms, mirrors, however efficiency of the specified means is low. For visually impaired printing editions with a large print, special notebooks with fat rulers, watch with contrast dials, lighting and light-protective devices belong to not optical means. At selection of means of correction by visually impaired use special tables for definition of visual acuity afar and close and speeds of reading the text, and also sets of magnifying glasses, telescopic and mikroskopny spectacles.

Devices of cultural and community appointment give big help in elementary rehabilitation of visually impaired persons, facilitate the blind person performance of various works in life. Automatic dosers of liquids and loose products, kitchen devices, watch with relief dials, special measuring tools, thermometers, calendars, nitkovdevate - whether, etc. concern to them. Various games which are specially executed for blind people including chess, checkers, dominoes, etc. are issued.

The main problem of rehabilitation of deaf, blind and mute persons — ensuring their communication with able to see and blind people. For this purpose there are special communicators. The simplest of them represents a plate, on to-ruyu letters of a usual and Braille font are put. More difficult electronic communicators contain the Braille and ordinary keyboard, the scheme of transformation of codes, tactile and visual displays. In life blind glukhonekhmye use various signaling devices duplicating signals of a doorbell or an alarm clock and containing vibrators, fans or strong light sources.

See also Deafmutism with blindness , Blindness .

Bibliography: Kondratov A. M. Recovery of working ability of blind people, M., 1976; Reyfman M. B. Production tiflotekhnika, M., 1976; With in e V. S. Tiflotekhnik's r-fishing, M., 1960; Fave E. E. Clinical low vision, Boston, 1976; International guide to aids and appliance for blind and visually impaired persons, ed. by L. L. Clark, N. At., 1977.

V. A. Usik.