From Big Medical Encyclopedia

THIOPHOS (synonym: parathion, E-605, NIUIF-100) — the organophosphorous compound derivative of thiophosphoric acid which was earlier widely applied to fight against various wreckers of plants; 0,0-dietil-0-(4 nitrophenyl) thiophosphate. In a crust, time it is laid off; its use is forbidden in connection with high toxicity.

A light oily liquid, well soluble in many solvents (except for hydrocarbons of paraffin), water solubility apprx. 0,002% (25 °); t°kip 160 ° at 1 mm of mercury., volatility of 0,09 mg/m 3 . Technical drug T. has an appearance of dark-brown liquid with a smell of garlic. In water T. it is slowly hydrolyzed with formation of n-nitrophenol and diethylthiophosphoric to - you. At interaction with oxidizers of T. passes the phosphate having more high toxicity for vertebrata into 0,0-diethyl-0-4-nitrophenyl. Metabolism of T. happens to formation of various connections depending on a species of an animal, but the main metabolite is n-nitrophenol. Maximum allowable concentration of T. in air of workrooms of 0,05 mg/m 3 , in water of reservoirs of 0,003 mg/l.

T. can get into an organism through the unimpaired skin and mucous membranes, it is inhalation and orally. At poisoning of T. weakness, depression, dizziness, abdominal pains, vomiting, a diarrhea, short wind, tachycardia, cyanosis, a fever, muscular twitchings, an ataxy, slezo-and hypersalivation, a bronchorrhea, a miosis, a collapse and a fluid lungs are noted. At the same time contents sharply decreases cholinesterases (see) in blood the content of n-nitrophenol in urine also increases.

In all cases of poisoning of T. it is necessary to bring the victim urgently in to lay down. establishment. In hard cases transfer of the patient into an artificial respiration, drop intravenous administration of solution of atropine of a hydrochloride for stopping of a bronchorrhea, and also reaktivator of cholinesterase is shown.

At court. - a medical research of a corpse note a miosis, emphysema and a fluid lungs, in some cases with zones of hemorrhages and pneumonic focuses, find ge-morragicheski-necrotic zones in tissue of a pancreas. In a brain at gistol. a research the plethora of vessels with existence of perivascular hemorrhages, signs of defeat of nervous cells comes to light. In cadaveric blood the content of cholinesterase is sharply reduced.

The leading value in examination of fatal poisoning of T. has a judicial and chemical research, at Krom carry out preliminary assay in the beginning — quantitative definition of activity of cholinesterase in cadaveric blood. Detection of T. it is based on identification of phosphorus groups, integrally combined sulfur, connections with nitrophenolic radicals. For this purpose T. from internals of a corpse (a stomach, intestines, a liver, a kidney) take hexane in the presence of anhydrous sodium of sulfate with the subsequent extraction and hromatografichesky cleaning, eluating with hromatogramm. Minimum quantity of T., found by means of this method, makes 0,12 mg on 100 g of the studied fabric. T. it is possible to reveal also gazokhromatografichesky, photometric by methods, and in urine — by the number of hectare nitrophenol in it.

Conclusion about detection of T. give on set of positive takes of all carried-out reactions.

See also Phosphorus organic compounds .

Bibliography: Millers of H. N. Himiya of pesticides, page 352, M., 1968; Acute management at acute poisonings, under the editorship of S. N. Golikov, page 284, M., 1977; Shamshurin A. A. and To r to them e r M. 3. Physical and chemical properties of pesticides, page 134, M., 1976; P r e d and I., Patica C. et Manolescu A. Etude morphopathologique et biochimique de l’intoxication aigue lethale par le para-thion, Ann. M£d. leg., t. 45, p. 156, 1965; P r i n z H. J. Eine schwere percutane Vergiftung mit Parathion (E 605), Arch. Toxikol., Bd 25, S. 318, 1969; V e r-cruysse A. a.Deslypere P. Acute parathion poisoning forencic problems, J. forens. Med., v. 11, p, 107, 1964.

A. F. Rubtsov.