THERMOPSIS (Thermopsis) — species of herbaceous plants; as a medicinal plant the thermopsis lanceolate is used (Thermopsis lanceolata; a synonym a myshatnik) — a perennial herbaceous plant up to 40 cm high this. bean (Leguminosae) of a subfamily of papilionaceous (Papilionatae). Stalks simple or low-branchy, slightly furrowed. Leaves are next, korotkochereshkovy, ternate with two large shamrocks, prodolgovatoelliptichesky, 3 — 6 cm long, 0,5 — 1,2 cm wide, smooth-edged, trimmed on edge and hoary from the lower party. Inflorescences in the form of rather thin apical brushes up to 15 cm long consisting of 2 — 6 verticils. Nimbus of flowers yellow. A fruit — slightly the arc-shaped bean of 5 — 6 cm with a long nose on a top (fig). In the USSR grows in steppe and forest-steppe zones of Siberia, Kazakhstan and nek-ry other districts of the country.
As medicinal raw materials use collected in the initial blossom (before formation of fruits) and the dried-up grass of a thermopsis (herba Thermopsidis; vulture. grass of a myshatnik; GFH, joint venture. Б). It contains alkaloids of thermodogs, gomotermopsin, cytisine, caulophyllin, Pachycarpinum, anagirin, etc., saponins, essential oil, tannic and nek-ry other substances.
Content of alkaloids in a grass of T., according to requirements of GFH, there have to be not less than 1%. As a separate type of raw materials collect also seeds of T., to-rye use for receiving cytisine.
Grass of T. apply in medical practice as an expectorant of reflex type of action (see. Expectorants ). At administration of drugs of a grass of T. inside the substances which are contained in them (hl. obr. alkaloids) render irritant action on receptors of a stomach and in this regard reflex strengthen secretion of bronchial glands that is followed by reduction of viscosity of a phlegm. Besides, under the influence of these substances there is a reflex increase in activity of a ciliary epithelium and strengthening of peristaltic reductions of smooth muscles of bronchial tubes. In general the specified effects promote simplification of expectoration from respiratory tracts. In high doses drugs of a grass of T. make sick and vomiting of a reflex origin. The separate alkaloids which are contained in a grass of T., possess also nek-ry other types of action. E.g., cytisine and to a lesser extent caulophyllin reflex stimulate breath, and Pachycarpinum causes gangliobloki-ruyushchy effect.
As expectorants drugs of a grass of T. apply at respiratory diseases and lungs (bronchitis, pneumonia, etc.)? to-rye are followed by cough with knitting difficult separated phlegm.
Grass of T. appoint inside in the form of infusion, powder, tablets and dry extract; the adult powders and tablets — on 0,01 — 0,05 g 2 — 3 times a day, infusion (1:400) — on 1 table. l. 3 — 4 times a day; to children up to 2 years infusion from 0,1 g on 100 ml — on 1/2 — 1 chayn. l., to children of advanced age — infusion from 0,2 g on 100 ml — on 1 dessert or on 1 table. l. 3 times a day.
Side effect of drugs of a grass of T. it is shown by nausea and vomiting. At pulmonary diseases with tendency to a pneumorrhagia it is not necessary to appoint these drugs.
Powder of a grass of T. is a part of various difficult tablets, napr, cough pills, etc.
Extract of a thermopsis of dry (Extractum Thermopsidis siccum) is produced in the form of tablets on 0,05 g, to-rye appoint the adult on 1 tablet 2 — 3 times a day.
See also Lekarstvepny plants .
Bibliography: Clinical pharmacology, under the editorship of V., V. Zakusov, page 305, M., 1978; Mashkovsky M. D. Pharmaceuticals, t. 1, page 358, M., 1984.
V. K. Muratov.