THERMOPHILIC BACTERIA (warmth, heat + phileo to love Greek therme; bacteria) — the bacteria capable to exist and breed at high or rather high temperatures.
T. nepatogenna for the person. They have sanitary and indicative value as the indicator of specific pollution of biologically pure soils composts and manure, and also in the canning industry at control and examination of finished goods, to-ruyu maintain within two days at t ° 55 °. T. apply in the milk industry at ferment of firm cheeses, etc. dairy products.
T. are in many respects similar to others bacteria (see): they use the same sources of carbon and nitrogen for growth, have similar metabolism and are divided by a way of obtaining energy and nutrients on aerobes (see), anaerobe bacterias (see), facultative anaerobes, autotrophs (see. Autotrophic organisms ) and heterotrophs (see. Heterotrophic organisms ). T. subdivide into three basic groups: strict, or obligate, possessing with the optimum temperature of growth 65 — 70 ° and not growing at t ° lower than 40 — 42 °; optional, having the maximum temperature of growth 50 — 65 ° and capable to breed at the room temperature; thermotolerant, having the maximum temperature of growth 45 — 50 ° and formative at the room temperature.
T. occur among photosynthesizing bacteria, napr, blue-green seaweed (blue-green algae), among spore-forming bacteria of the sorts Bacillus, Clostridium, Desul-fotomaculum, gram-positive asporogenic bacteria of the sorts Lactobacillus, actinomycetes of the sorts Streptomyces, Thermoactinomyces, Thermomonospora, Pseudonocardia and other methanogenic bacteria there are sorts Methanobacterium, and also among the bacteria of the sort Thiobacillus and gram-negative anaerobic bacteria of the sort Thermus oxidizing sulfur. T. live in hot springs or in artificially heated waters. Along with T. there are also other thermophilic microorganisms (seaweed, mushrooms, the elementary) called also by thermophiles.
Bibliography: Life of microbes in extreme conditions, under the editorship of D. Kashner, the lane, with English, M., 1981; Loginova L. G., Golovachev R. S. and Scherbakov M. A. The thermophilic bacteria forming active tsellyulolitichesky enzymes, Microbiology, t. 35, century 5, page 796, 1966; Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, ed. by R. E. Buchanan and N. E. Gibbons, Baltimore, 1974; With a s t e n-hol z R. W. Thermophilic blue-green algae and the thermal environment, Bact. Rev., v. 33, p. 476, 1969, bibliogr.; Darla n d G. o. A thermophilic, acidophilic mycoplasma isolated from a coal refuse pile, Science, t. 170, p. 1416, 1970.
P. Yu. Tashpulatov.