From Big Medical Encyclopedia

THERAPY FIELD - the section of therapy and military medicine studying diagnosis, clinic and treatment of fighting defeats of a therapeutic profile, feature of emergence, a current, prevention and treatment of the diseases arising at the military personnel, and also developing questions of the theory and the organization of the therapeutic help in troops in peace and wartime. Main objectives of T. century - the item is development of diagnostic methods, treatment and prevention of the therapeutic diseases developing as a result of influence of weapons of mass destruction (a radial illness, the combined and combined radiation defeats, defeats of OV and toxins, psychogenias of wartime); studying of questions of prevention and treatment of internal diseases, including infectious, the most often meeting in field army, and also visceral pathology at the wounded (burned and contused); development and deployment in practice of the corresponding organizational forms and methods of rendering the therapeutic help to patients and wounded in a difficult situation of war at mass a dignity. losses.

Registration of T. century - the item as one of the most important sections of military medicine (see. Meditsina military ) it was prepared within many decades by the best representatives of domestic medicine developing along with general provisions of military medicine questions of the organization and assistance to patients in field conditions. Outstanding figures of domestic medicine M. Ya. Mudroye, N. I. Pirogov, S. P. Botkin, A. A. Charukovsky, etc. repeatedly drew attention of command and heads of medical service to considerable number a dignity. losses of a therapeutic profile in field army also pointed out features of emergence and the course of diseases at staff during fighting. They began development of organizational bases of T. century - the item. Experience of the Russian doctors-veterans (V. I. Glinchikova, A. I. Ignatovsky, etc.), studying «a gas disease» and giving help the poisoned gas on the Russian-German front in the years of World War I of 1914 — 1918, it was used for the development of questions of medical sorting, the organization of medical aid and evacuation struck a therapeutic profile at their mass revenues to stages of medical evacuation.

Before the Great Patriotic War on the basis of the analysis of losses by patients in last wars and estimates of their possible number and structure in future war it was suggested that sick and struck a therapeutic profile can make a considerable part of all a dignity. losses of troops. For this reason with all sharpness the question of need of creation of evidence-based system of rendering the therapeutic help to wounded and patients in field army and developments of the organizational principles T was raised. century - the item. Making reports at meetings Leningrad and Moscow therapeutic about-in in May, 1941, the chief of Sanitary management of Red Army E. I. Smirnov offered the term «field therapy» and for the first time determined the content of new discipline. He noted that «field therapy very long time ago knocks at the doors of medical institutions of our country. It is necessary to let it, to open for her doors, to get acquainted with it more attentively, to lift it on a board of promotion and to bear in all corners of our Soviet Union, there, where young medical shots prepare».

Formation and improvement of T. century - the item as science exerted impact on development of organizational forms of rendering the therapeutic help; they began to be developed from first months of the Great Patriotic War. By the end of 1942 the system of rendering the therapeutic help to wounded and patients was organizationally issued and finally it developed as a component of stage treatment with evacuation to destination (see System of lechebnoevakuatsionny providing). In practice of military therapists the principles of the uniform field medical doctrine were implemented. It was promoted considerably by that circumstance that from the first days of war the management of military therapists was headed by large scientists-clinical physicians of the country of M. S. V wind (hl. therapist of Red Army), A. L. Myasnikov (hl. therapist of the Navy), hl. therapists of fronts and fleet of B. X. Vasilenko, E. M. Gelypteyn, P. I. Egorov, N. S. Molchanov, B. V. Ilyinsky, N. A. Kurshakov, C. A. Pospelov, etc., to-rye, having huge scientific erudition, implemented new diagnostic in practice and to lay down. techniques, organized comprehensive study of features of emergence and the course of diseases, characteristic of wartime, and together with organizers of medical providing troops developed harmonious system of the therapeutic help in field army.

Organizationally this system included creation of institute of chief specialists (hl. therapist of Red Army, hl. therapists of fronts, army therapists, therapists of managements of evacuation centers), formation of field mobile and evacuation therapeutic hospitals (see. Infectious field mobile hospital, Therapeutic field mobile hospital), introduction to staff of surgical hospitals of positions of therapists, etc. This stage of development of T. century - the item was characterized by many-sided and fruitful work of military therapists. Along with huge treatment-and-prophylactic, organizational and methodical work tasks of training were carried out, research was carried out. It was paid to improvement a lab much attention. and x-ray equipment of hospitals.

As a result of studying of incidence of staff of Red Army features of emergence and the course of a hypertension, rheumatism, nephrites, tuberculosis, etc. were revealed. The acute pulmonary and cordial syndromes (A. G. Dembo, A. A. Kedrov, etc.) which made the most numerous group in a class of diseases of bodies of blood circulation were fruitfully studied. New or little-known diseases were described: spring and summer encephalitis (A. G. Panov), hemorrhagic capillary toxicosis (A. A. Kalachev), bronchiolitis (M. D. Tushinsky, L. M. Georgiyevskaya). Such diseases as a nutritional dystrophy which are seldom found in peace time, avitaminosis were comprehensively investigated (E. M. Gelypteyn, N. S. Molchanov, S. M. Ryss, etc.). New samostosh'elny section T. century - items made materials about functional and morfol. changes of internals at wounded and contused, generalized further in «Experience of the Soviet medicine in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945».

Medical and diagnostic work of therapists was characterized by rather high level. So, heart diseases were diagnosed in absolute majority of cases at army and army stages of medical evacuation and only in 13% — in hospitals of the back of the country. The circulatory unefficiency came to light preferential at early stages and its treatment was effective (only in 13 — 15% of cases it was not possible to achieve recovery). The general recoverability of patients in a system exceeded 90%.

In post-war years value of problems T sharply increased. century - the item in the general system of medical providing troops in connection with threat of emergence of nuclear war and the probability of mass losses of a therapeutic profile connected with it in the conditions of use of weapons of mass defeat. Especially big contribution to development of T. century - the item in this period was introduced by N. S. Molchanov. There was a need of studying first of all of the diseases arising from weapons of mass destruction (fighting therapeutic pathology) that, according to N. S. Molchanov, puts field therapy in one row with field surgery. Especially quickly T. century - the item as independent subject and scientific matter began to develop since the beginning of the 50th. Studying of new types of fighting therapeutic pathology and development of the corresponding methods of treatment were headed by B. D. Ivanovsky, E. B. Zakrzhevsky, E. V. Gembitsky (see t. 25, additional materials), F. I. Mosquitoes, G. I. Alekseev, etc.

Systematic teaching T. century - with the item it was begun in Moscow in 1945 at the department of the Military of the same name f-that at TsIU; of S. M. Kirov it is carried out to VMA since 1946 when the course of lectures and a practical training on this subject was included in the program of hospital therapy; in medical in-ta of T. century - the item is taught in a similar order since 1947. In 1955 in VMA of S. M. Kirov the department of field therapy is created (B. D. Ivanovsky).

Bibliography: Field therapy, under the editorship of N. S. Molchanov and E. V. Gembitsky, L., 1973; Gembitsky E. V. Chemical injury as problem of field therapy, L., 1978; it, Experience of therapists in combat conditions and its value for development of field therapy, Voyen. - medical zhurn., No. 5, page 46, 1980; it, Sergey Petrovich Botkin and development of field therapy, M., 1980; Gembitsky E. V. and To about m are about in F. I. Field therapy, M., 1983; Egorov P. I. Questions of field therapy, M. — L., 1945; Molchanov N. S. Field therapy, L., 1961; it sh e, Some topical issues of field therapy, Voyen, - medical zhurn., M 6, page 9, 1961; Bases of the organization of medical support of troops, under the editorship of N. I. Zavalishin, M., 1961; Smirnov E. I. War and military medicine, M., 1979.

B. V. Gembitsky.