From Big Medical Encyclopedia

THAILAND — the state in Southeast Asia, in the central part of the Indochina peninsula and a northern part of the Malay Peninsula. Territory of 514 thousand km 2 . The population apprx. 48 million people (the beginning of 1982). The capital — Bangkok (St. 5,3 million people, including living in suburbs, 1982). In the administrative relation the country is divided into 72 provinces (chang-vada). Ofits. language — Thai.


T. — constitutional monarchy. In October, 1977 as a result of a military coup the National political council which made the program of strengthening of the regulating role of the state in economy, holding a land reform, fight against corruption and unemployment came to the power. At the end of 1978 the new constitution became effective. The head of state — the king. The supreme legislative body — National legislative assembly. T. keeps close ties with the USA, Japan and other capitalist countries.

Climate of the country — monsoonal, tropical. In the summer and in the fall hurricanes (typhoons) are frequent.

T. — agrarian country. Apprx. 80% of the amateur population it is engaged in agriculture. Feudal and landowner forms of possession of the earth remain. Primary branches of the industry — mining, textile, chemical, car assembly. The important place in economy is taken by the foreign capital (from Japan, the USA, Germany and England).

Main population of the country Thais (St. 50%), Lao, Chinese, Malayans, Khmers, oozes, meo, etc. Vital rates (for 1000 zhit.) in 1980: birth rate 22,8, mortality 5,3, natural increase 17,5. Child mortality 13,3 on 1000 live-born.

The main problems of health care are connected with infectious, parasitic incidence, mental diseases, drug addiction and traumatism. In 1981 39 cases of cholera, 11326 cases of a typhoid and a pas-ratifov, 41 010 cases of dysentery, 2328 cases of an amebiasis, 9485 cases of infectious hepatitis are registered. 473 210 cases of malaria, 13 702 cases of a pulmonary tuberculosis, 4463 cases of a leprosy are noted. Among children's infections 24 298 cases of measles, 2944 cases of whooping cough, 794 cases of diphtheria are registered, there were 257 cases of fresh poliomyelitis (in 1977 — 875 cases). 1562 cases of viral encephalitis and 25 641 cases of tick-borne hemorrhagic fever, considerable number of venereal diseases are registered (in 1977 — 11345 cases of syphilis and 133 972 cases of gonorrhea). Among rates of mortality on 100 thousand population the important place is taken by infectious and parasitic diseases mortality — 40,3, cardiovascular diseases — 47,7, malignant new growths — 24,7.

Responsibility for the organization and the management of health services carries Min-in of public health care. In provinces and areas the main provincial medical departments and regional public health departments are at the head of health services.

Medical aid render to the population in the country both the public, and private sector of health care. In 1980 in the country was 714 institutions for hospitalization of patients on 71 718 beds (658 people on 1 bed). From them 13 799 beds in-tsakh the general profile, 43 542 beds — in local, or rural,-tsakh, 1413 beds — in the centers of health care. Among specialized BCs in 1980 there were 2 maternity homes on 800 beds, 1 pediatric-tsa (460 beds), 1 infectious-tsa (400 beds), 1 oncological-tsa (146 beds), 2 tubercular-tsy (585 beds), 8 psychiatric BCs (6981 beds), 2 ophthalmologic hospitals (31 beds), etc.

Extra hospital help in the country is given in polyclinic departments of BC, out-patient clinics, in 3500 centers of health care (1976) and mobile medical groups. There are institutions for rendering the specialized extra hospital help. So, in 1976 in the country 1450 obstetric centers for assistance to pregnant women and children, 11 tubercular clinics, 327 antimalarial departments, 82 venereologic and 51 leprologicheskiya a clinic functioned. Name and content of work of healthcare institutions of T. not completely correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see Treatment and prevention facilities abroad).

In Thailand there is a set balneol. resorts, the most known of to-rykh are Biangdok, Manpak, Kaumamron, Pongnamron, to Tambonbank, Tambonchengda, etc. Major factors of resorts — thermal (t ° 35 — 96 °) sulfide mineral waters and thermal (t ° 40 — 84 °) the chloride sodium mineral waters applied in the form of bathtubs to treatment of patients with diseases of skin, a peripheral nervous system, musculoskeletal system, a female genital.

In 1980 in T. 6867 doctors (about 1,46 doctors for 10 000 population), 1084 stomatologists, 1098 midwifes, 7845 nurses-midwifes, 7571 rural midwifes, 10 118 nurses, 10 376 assistants to nurses, 1253 auxiliary nurses and other medical staff worked.

In the country 7 schools for training of doctors and a number of schools on training of nurses of various qualification of nurses - and a kusherok and midwifes function.

Bibliography: Countries of the world, Short political and economic reference book, page 224, M., 1981; The Sixth review of a condition of health care in the world * 1973 — 1977, the p. 2, page 222, Geneva, 1981; World health statistics annual, 1978, v. 3, p. 40, Geneva, 1979; World health statistics annual, 1983, Jene-va, 1983; World health statistics annual, Infectious diseases cases, p. 52, Geneva, 1979; World health statistics annual, Vital statistics and causes of death, p. 12 a. o., Geneva, 1980.

A. A. Rozov.