TEKSTILNAYa INDUSTRY, occupational health

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

TEXTILE INDUSTRY — the industry which is engaged in processing of fibrous materials (cotton, flax, hemp, wool, synfils) in fabrics and other products. Other includes cotton, linen, woolen, silk and other productions. For receiving finished goods fibrous materials undergo three basic processes of processing: spinning, weaving and finishing.

The fibrous materials intended for processing come to a spinning room where they are exposed to a loosening, to cleaning of foreign impurity, then create them in yarn, impregnate with special solutions, dry and send to a weaving shed. From the professional vrednost characteristic of spinning and weaver's workshops, the leading place is taken dust (see), containing up to 0,5% of silicon dioxide, various bacteria, mold fungi, hemolitic coccal flora, and also the increased temperature and air humidity, intensive broadband noise (see) and vibration (see).

Organic and mineral dust in a combination with microorganisms can lead to development of diseases of a respiratory organs, including. byssinosis (see), factory fever, emphysema of lungs (see) and bronchial asthma (see).

Noise level, generated by cars of spinning and weaver's workshops, quite often exceeds admissible norm on 16 — 21 dB. Owing to continuous impact of such noise at working professional relative deafness can develop (see).

In finishing shops (otbelny, vorsovalny, printing, engraving, tinctorial, appreturny and harvest and warehouse) adverse production factors also take place. In particular, in a bleaching house processing of fabrics is followed big warm and a moisture apportionment-niyem, pollution of the air environment by toxicants and dust. The mercerizing machines and pulp drier digesters are sources of release of carbon monoxide, vapors of alkali and a chamois to - you; in the vorsovalny workshop — the elevated temperature of air; in printing — at all stages of technological process couples and aerosols of dyes are allocated (see); in engraving — in air of a working zone nitric oxides, hydrogen chloride, chromium oxide are found; in tinctorial — calorification and moisture, the increased dust content and a gas contamination nitric oxides, ammonia, sulphurous anhydride, in couples sulfuric and acetic to - you etc.; in appreturny — vapors of ammonia, formaldehyde and acetic to - you; in the harvest and warehouse workshop at rejection of goods work is followed by tension of sight.

The complex of production factors exerts impact on structure of incidence. The incidence on workshops is various. So, in finishing shops it is usually higher, than in spinning and weaver's. The organic dyes applied in Other are characterized by diverse action on an organism, nek-ry of them can cause oncogenous and mutagen effect, a professional allergic dermatosis (see).

For the purpose of prevention of occupational diseases holding precautionary actions is necessary. In a spinning room implementation of units with the closed transfer of raw materials, the shelter of cars, moistening of fibers, continuous cleaning of drums of combing machines, use of devices is necessary for automatic control of temperature and air humidity. In a weaving shed it is necessary to implement beschelnochny looms more widely; on shuttle machines (for the purpose of reduction of noise) — to replace metal gear wheels of gear drives with gear wheels from less sound wire materials; to trim halls with sound-absorbing materials, e.g. mineral cotton, etc. For reduction of vibration the weaver's equipment is recommended to be placed in one-storey cases, motors and machines — to establish on the concrete or cement bases with special laying. In finishing shops mechanization of the manual operations connected with heavy lifting, especially at preparation of solutions of dyes is necessary; transfer into ACS of processes of dyeing of tapes and fibers on devices of periodic action, equipment of devices of continuous dyeing by the pressurized tinctorial and drying and krasilnopromyvny lines with ACS; increase in efficiency of local and general ventilation, sealing of steam chambers, dryer drums, tinctorial, washing, gas-disgraced and mercerizing machines.

See also articles devoted to separate chemicals, e.g. Ammonia , Carbon monoxide , Acetic acid , Is lame etc.

Bibliography: Influence of production factors and working conditions on the state of health of workers of the textile enterprises, under the editorship of V. V. Kulemin, century 2, page 36, 92, Ivanovo, 1979; Questions of hygiene, physiology of work and incidence of workers of the textile enterprises, under the editorship of V. V. Kulemin, century 3, page 81, Ivanovo, 1980; Voronin A. P. Occupational health in the textile industry, Ivanovo, 1977, bibliogr.; Voronin A. P. and Levina K. P. Hygienic assessment of the textile equipment for the purpose of the prevention of migration of toxicants on production Wednesday, in book: Aktualn. vopr. ecological toksi-stake., under the editorship of G. A. Stepansky, etc., page 103, Ivanovo, 1978; Production ergonomics, under the editorship of S. I. Gorshkova, M., 1979; H an a s H. u. Hilgeroth E. Einfluss der Trocknungsbedingungen auf die Migration von Farbstoffen oder Kunsthar-zen bei Geweben aus Cellulosafasern und Polyester Cellulose — Mischgeweben, Mel-liana Textilberichte, S. 699, 829, 1970.

A. P. Voronin.