From Big Medical Encyclopedia

TERMINOLOGY MEDICAL — set of the words and phrases used by specialists for designation of scientific concepts of the field of medicine and health care.

As well as any word, the term represents the language sign having contents, or value (semantics), and a form — a sound complex. Unlike words of common lexicon, value to-rykh correspond to everyday concepts, values of terms make scientific concepts. The main form of existence of the term is the definition, or scientific definition, i.e. establishment of value of the term by allocation of distinguishing essential characters of a concept. T. m — the industry naturally developed terminological system expressing exclusive variety of almost all classes of concepts — patrimonial and specific, the general, specific and abstract. Its categorial device covers a thing, process, essence, the phenomenon, a sign, property, quality, quantity, the relation, interaction, causality and nek-ry other categories. The list of the names designating objects of uniform set, relating to one of the fields of science, napr systematized by certain rules to anatomy, histology, embryology, microbiology, etc., carries the name «nomenclature».

The sound complex of the term can be presented in a word or the phrase. The term in the form of the phrase consists of the defined word (noun) and words defining it (a noun in a genitive case or an adjective) or that and another together. In the prevailing majority terms represent the names which are specially created in the course of scientific activity.

In domestic T. the m can be allocated taking into account distinctions of a tongue origin, forms of writing and the function which is carried out at the national or international levels the following basic groups of terms: 1) primordially Russian names; 2) internatsionaliz-we the Greek or Latin origin, from to-rykh one were borrowed in finished form («ready words») from classic languages, and others (scientific neologisms) were created artificially from lexical and word-formation material of these languages on their structural models, napr, cirrhosis, a stethoscope, a phagocyte, leukemia, an allergy, etc.; 3) primordial zapadnoyevropeizm, i.e. the words which arose because of the Western European languages from their lexical and word-formation material; 4) Latin terms (so-called termini technici) — the special reference scientific designations issued graphically and grammatical by rules of Latin. The last provide mutual understanding between the specialists speaking different languages. The modern international nomenclatures having officially approved status can be an example of termini technici. Treat them, e.g., Parisian anatomic nomenclature (see), Histologic nomenclature (see) etc. Termini technici designating diseases, patol. states, symptoms and syndromes, are not united in officially approved classification lists, i.e. nomenclatures. Use of such termini technici carries rather Traditional and optional, than a binding character. Nek-ry termini technici have no standard equivalents in national languages, napr, spina bifida anterior, situs viscerum inversus, carcinoma in situ, per os, per rectum, ex tempore, in vivo, etc.

Modern T. m — result of centuries-old development of world doctoring and medical science. Irrespective of in what national language of the countries of the European and American areas or the people of the USSR the T is presented. m, it includes a considerable share of the general on a tongue origin of lexical and word-formation units, and also the general structural models. It is explained by that comprehensive steady influence, a cut rendered on T. m within many centuries also continue to render two classic languages of a classical antiquity to this day — Ancient Greek and Latin. Though knowledge of doctors of the Ancient East and first of all Assyria, Babylon and Ancient Egypt formed the basis of medicine of Ancient Greece, it is impossible to find almost any tongue proofs in the compositions of Greek doctors which reached us, to-rye would testify to a continuity with medical lexicon of the people of Mesopotamia, India, Egypt, etc. Therefore chronology of the European T. the m can be begun with Hippocrates's works and the «Hippocrates's Collection» called by his name from where the scientific medicine inherited a set of names, napr, an amblyopia, a cachexia, a carcinoma, emigration, herpes, gippus, a kyphosis, a lordosis, a coma, a noma, paresis, a polyp, typhus, cholera, emphysema, epidemic, an erythema, a symphysis, a bronchial tube, an urethra, etc. Much Aristotle made for replenishment of the medical dictionary. The following stage in the history of T. the m is connected with activity of two outstanding doctors of the Alexandria medical school of an era of Hellenism — Herophilos and Erazistrat. They considerably filled up the medical dictionary at the expense of lexicon anatomic and fiziol. contents. The medicine of Ancient Rome was only further development of medicine of Hellenism and to a lesser extent represented the original phenomenon. The same treats also T. the composition «About medicine» Avl Cornelius Zels was m in Latin as it is possible to judge it according to the small medical compositions of Romans which reached us, the most considerable of to-rykh. Successor terminal. traditions of the Hellenistic medical schools K. Galen was. He specified values of old, revived nek-ry gippokratovsky names, almost forgotten or obscure for his contemporaries, entered a lot of new, napr, a thalamus. The considerable Greek terminological heritage remained for succeeding generations of doctors thanks to compositions in Greek language of outstanding doctors of the Byzantine period — Oribaziya (Oribasius, 325 — 403 AD), Nemeziya (Nemesius, apprx. 370 g), Aetion from Amides (Aetius, 502 — 575), Alexander Trallessky (Alexander Trallianus, 525 — 605), Pavel Eginsky (Paulus Aeginensis, 625 — 690), etc. From 8 — 9 centuries the terminotvorchestvo in Greek language temporarily began to decline. In 9 — 10 centuries Hippocrates and K. Galen's almost all compositions were translated into the Arab language. On the basis of these transfers there was a formation of the Arab medical literature. As an important grant during the training in medicine in Europe in the period of the Middle Ages served Latin translations of the Arab compositions representing, in turn, very often transfers or compilations of Greek sources. Since 15 century the role and influence of the Arab medicine and the Arab language began to weaken quickly. New Latin — the Latin of the Renaissance (15 — 16 centuries) applying for a role of language of science, the general for all countries of Europe was created. The anatomists who imitated for the first time the composition published in 1478 were one of its most active obnovitel And. Tsel-sa. Consecutive systematic reform of anatomic terminology in Latin was undertaken by A. Vezaly. Since the late Renaissance language of medicine gradually adapted to requirements of development of national languages. To the middle of 19 century Latin finally conceded (in the different countries at different times) to national languages the function of written or oral language of the scientific message, having reserved at the same time the major nominative function — naming of objects of science in nek-ry medical and biological classifications. Besides, classic languages remained the main international source for replenishment of T. m. To this day the vast majority new, introduced in T for the first time. the m of names will bear on itself the stamp of the Greek or Latin origin. Greek-Latin internatsionalizm easily get in terminology in national languages and, being modified according to them fonetiko - morphological mi systems, become irreplaceable.

Unborrowed Russian medical lexicon traces the roots back to an extreme antiquity. Though the majority of the remained medical hand-written monuments belongs to the second half of 17 century, it is possible to assume that nek-ry of them come from more ancient lists which appeared perhaps, at the time of Kievan Rus'. From time immemorial the words testified in Old Russian hand-written monuments a hip, a side, an eyebrow, a hair, a voice, a throat, a breast, a lip, tooth, a face, a nose, a nail, a kidney, a hand, a spleen, heart, a cinciput, a cataract, smallpox, hernia, urine, cancer, an ear, a shin, a stomach, bile, treatment, medical, pain, the patient, a bolnrshcha, a disease, a jaw, the pregnant woman, infertility, conception, pus, health, an ugly face, a spasm, hypostasis, an ulcer and many other reached us. To language of national Aesculapians — lechts — modern doctors are obliged by such names as, e.g., a scurvy, deprive, jaundice, a scab, a wound, barley, etc. At the same time the set of bright original Russian medical designations did not remain and gave way to scientific terms, hl. obr. International to-isms of a grekolatinsky origin. Since the second half of 18 century and especially within only 19 century in the forming Russian scientific T. the considerable number of internatsionalizm was included by m. The numerous Russian translated and traced equivalents are in parallel created. Merit of creation of domestic scientific T. m belonged to the Russian doctors and translators M. I. Shane, A. P. Protasov, H. To M. Ambodiku-Maksimovich, E. O. Mukhin and much other.

Terms of a Greek-Latin origin represent hl. obr. derivative words — prefixal, suffixal, difficult, difficult and suffixal. Their values usually consist of values of components — prefixes (and - hypo - hyper - anti-, etc.), suffixes (-it, - ohm, - oz, - iaz, etc.), roots (hydras - gem-, gepat-, nefr-, gastr-, takhi-, bradi-, stomat-, etc.), to-rye call terminoelementa-m. These are, as a rule, regularly repeating components of derivative words, to-rye, taking the constant place in structure of the word, keep the semantic unity. One is assigned to each terminoelement, two or three values are more rare. V T. the m is big the specific weight of the words containing several terminoelement, napr weed / fibro / a miosis / it, gastro/entero/kol/it, spleno/porto/hol / an angio/grafiya, gidro/uretero/nefr/oz, etc. By means of terminoelement numerous series of the same, constructed on the same word-formation model terms are formed. The most widespread is the following model: the first component designating a cell, fabric, body or system of an organism, and the second component designating or the nature of disease state (a disease, patol. process), or type of an operative measure, way of inspection or treatment, or type of the device, technical device. One of most idiosyncrasies of T. the m, caused by its bilingual grekolatinsky basis, consists available a large number of the doublet terminoelement of the Greek and Latin origin having identical semantics, napr anti-and kontra-, endo-, ento-and int-ra-, nefr-and ren-, pneumas - pnevmon-and pulmon-, angi-and VAZ-.

All set of medical terms together with the terms of interdisciplinary sciences used by doctors (biology, chemistry, physics, microbiology, radiology, genetics, psychology, the equipment, etc.) represents the extensive macrosystem numbering several thousand names including synonyms and names of pharmaceuticals. The sets of terms of separate sciences and areas of knowledge which are its part form private microsystems of terms. Each term — an element of a certain mikrotermino-system (anatomic, therapeutic, obstetric, endocrinological, hematologic, etc.). Taking a certain place in a microsystem, each term is in the fixed rodovidovy or other bonds with other terms of this microsystem. At the same time terms of different microsystems form certain structures of the relations among themselves at the level of a macrosystem. In 20 century these structures reflect a dual tendency of scientific progress: differentiation of medical sciences, on the one hand, and their integration — with another. The narrow specialties gemmating from a uniform medical tree, though lean in a varying degree on the general for all of them terminological fund, but develop first of all the highly specialized dictionaries. It facilitates exchange of information within a microsystem, but complicates mutual understanding within a macrosystem of T. m in general. Under such circumstances there is a real danger of the duplicated formulation and designation of the concepts reflecting the same phenomenon (synonimies) and polysemies (polysemanticism) of nek-ry terms.

Bystry proliferation of number of terms, contradictory interlacings of terms of a set of various microsystems, gnoseological specifics of medical activity, objects cover often do not give in to exact identification on the basis of objective criteria, existence of the hypotheses competing with each other, theories, schools of sciences, lack of systematic normaliza-torsky work on streamlining of separate microsystems — all this caused serious difficulties of development of T. m in the second half of 20 century and its shortcomings. The spontaneous, almost not managed growth the term of l, first of all, belongs to their number. fund, leading to a constant contamination defective, and often unnecessary terms, and also inaccuracy, a vagueness, a polysemy of many terms, abundance of synonyms, etc.

At the USSR's first scientific conference «Problems of Streamlining and Standardization of Medical Terminology» (Moscow, 1975) held at the initiative of the Main editorial office BME USSR Academy of Medical Sciences a number of first-priority measures for normalization of domestic T was planned. m. In work on streamlining of naturally developed microsystems, and also at introduction to them of new terms it is necessary to be guided by the main and additional requirements imposed to terms. Main requirements: 1) adequacy — the contents of the term shall correspond to modern scientific data on an object; 2) accuracy — on the content and volume the concept shall differ strictly from other concepts, and the sound complex shall not contain the elements which are incorrectly orienting abundance; 3) unambiguity (monosemy) — one sound complex shall express only one value, the polysemy (polysemanticism) is not admissible; 4) an odnooformlen-nost — the same value shall be expressed only by one sound complex, the synonimy is not admissible. Additional requirements: 1) not only according to contents, but also in a form the term shall reflect a certain classification of concepts, for this purpose the same signs of concepts shall be expressed in different terms by the same tongue signs — words, terminoelement; 2) sound complexes same according to the expressed contents of terms shall be under construction on the same structural-semantic model.

Owing to the nek-ry permanent reasons almost all above-stated requirements are difficult feasible. One of the reasons is absence in a number of the leading fields of medicine of classification hierarchical schemes of concepts, in to-rykh for each link there would be identically understood and applied terms. Adequacy, accuracy, unambiguity in understanding and use of terms depend not only on contents, but also on the classifying qualities of a sound complex of the term. Often rodovidovy bonds are expressed by terms phrases. The defined part in them expresses a generic term, and the defining part possessing the specifying, limiting function — a specific concept. From the gnoseological point of view very important that the defining parts of the phrases expressing concepts of one order fixed distinguishing characters also of one order, napr, a sign — localization, a sign — an etiology, a sign — pathomorphologic substrate etc.

One of the most solved problems remains a problem of a synonimy. Synonyms in terminology are words and the phrase, to-rye, differing with the sound structure, contain same, i.e. identical to themselves, a scientific concept. Almost all areas a wedge, medicine abound with synonyms, and in nek-ry disciplines their number reaches 25 — 40% of total number of terms. The same concept has sometimes from 3 to 25 and more synonyms. Among them the specific weight of eponymous terms (i.e. the terms formed from proper names), especially in names of symptoms and syndromes is big. Resort to eponymous terms often when it is not possible to find the satisfactory term adequately to display signs of a difficult phenomenon or briefly, economically to designate it by means of one or few words. In recent years elimination of many eponymous terms as they quite often are sources of mistakes and confusions began. However the groundless failure from eponymous terms leads to a mismatch in terminological systems, especially when from the eponymous term other terms, napr are formed, a Highmore's bosom — antritis, an Eustachian tube — an eustachitis; at the same time it is necessary to consider also traditionally developed names. It is also impossible to forget that nek-ry eponymous terms are connected with priority opening.

Special requirements to formation and streamlining of T. m arise in connection with more and more extending use in medicine and health care of the electronic computers (EC). INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS — information retrieval systems are developed for use of the COMPUTER (see), and for information processing for input in the INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM and obtaining information on requests artificial language — IPYa, or information retrieval language is created (see). According to requirements to the State automated system of scientific and technical information of the USSR in the field of medicine information retrieval language of deskrpptorny type is applied, for creation to-rogo set of the terms used for the description of concepts of medical science and health care is formed a terminosi-stem, i.e. Creation of a terminosistema is made by the analysis of the existing medical terminological dictionaries, texts of medical publications and other materials. The medical termino-system contains several tens of thousands terms and is the most numerous in comparison with terminosistema of other sciences and the industries of the national economy.

After a sformirovaniye of a terminosistema its partition on groups (families) of the terms connected with each other on sense or a form of writing is made. Each such group of terms is called a class of conditional equivalence.

In a class the main term called is selected descriptor (see). If the descriptor is homonymous, definition (in brackets after a descriptor) its values in the field of medicine and health care is given. Also terms, synonymous in relation to a descriptor, higher in the hierarchical relation, subordinate and associative are selected. The group of terms which is written down in a certain order carries the name of descriptor article. For example, a descriptor «dementia» has a synonym «weak-mindedness», the higher term of «disorder of intelligence», subordinate «presenile dementia» and «senile», the associative term «Alzheimer's disease». Set of the descriptor articles and separate descriptors which do not have descriptor article, located in alphabetical order forms thesaurus (see).

The thesaurus is a controlled and changing dictionary in an established way of the created terms. The thesaurus can form on medicine in general (industry) and on separate medical disciplines or groups of disciplines (problem). The thesaurus gains the legal importance after passing of the state registration at All-Union research institute of technical information, classification and coding (VNIIKI). In the USSR in the field of medicine «The thesaurus information retrieval on medicine and health care», with M., 1982 now works as the industry thesaurus; in the USA in the largest information system Medlars the thesaurus «Medical subject headings», in the Excerpta medica system (Netherlands) — the thesaurus MALJMET is developed.

Now the large volume of works on standardization of terminology is carried out that is also substantially connected with need of use of terminology for information processing and obtaining information from the COMPUTER, and also for preparation of medical editions.

Scientific and technical examination of the standardized terms and assignment number state standard specification is carried out by VNIIKI. The terms established as standard are obligatory for use in thesauruses and documentation of all types, textbooks, manuals and reference books. Use in official documents of terms synonyms of the standardized term is forbidden. One of the most difficult questions at standardization of terminology is standardization of the phrases consisting of several nouns.

Works on standardization of terminology in languages of member countries of SEV are widely carried out by the Constant commission of SEV on cooperation in standardization. So, for example, at the 52nd meeting of the SEV Standing committee on cooperation in standardization 2 standards on medical terms are approved: SEV 3928—82 standard «Endoscopes medical. Terms and definitions» and SEV 3929—82 standard «Devices of an inhalation anesthesia and artificial ventilation of the lungs. Terms and definitions».

In the USSR on the basis of VNIIKI the automated system of information and terminological service (ASITS) is created. VNIIKI carries out state examination and standardization of terminology, and also information service of consumers in this area. To these purposes serve the collections «Scientific and Technical Terminology» published by institute (12 issues a year), «The bibliographic index of industry standards on terms» and «Index of the standardized terms». Any institutions, including and a medical profile can be subscribers of ASITO.

Index on terms and definitions, section P «Health care. Objects of sanitation and hygiene» contains located in alphabetical order (with the indication number state standard specification or the SEV standard) the standardized medical terms. In 1982 617 standardized terms are provided in Index on health care.

Works on standardization of terminology at the international level are carried out within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 3 working languages — English, French and Russian.

At the same time condition of orderliness of T. m such is that its standardization is possible only in very limited scales. To transformation of T. the m in the uniform arranged system will serve carrying out serious scientific research in each field of theoretical, clinical and preventive medicine according to the uniform program under the scientific and methodical management of specialized research establishment, inclusion of researches in the field of streamlining and standardization of domestic T. m in number of scientific problems of allied value.

In medical research establishments a certain work on streamlining of T is carried out. m. In 1967. The presidium of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences created the Terminological commission (since 1982 — the Main terminological commission — GTK AMN SSSR). The commission is headed by N. A. Krayevsky, prominent scientists-physicians — S. Ya. Do-letsky, I. P are its part. Leads, BB. IT. Lisitsyn, K. V. Sudakov, etc., and also representatives of Committee on scientific terminology of Academy of Sciences of the USSR and Main terminological commission of Gosstandart of the USSR. The scientific and methodical leadership in streamlining of T is assigned to GTK AMN SSSR. m, the solution of the controversial issues concerning selection, definition and writing of medical terms with the approval of the corresponding recommendations.

Paid GTK AMN SSSR and pays the known attention to a linguistic regulation of medical terminology, rational creation of the Russian equivalents of foreign-language terms, the correct transfer of foreign eponim in the Russian transcription. However, without having regular scientific body till 1984, the State Customs Committee could not capture all extremely wide complex of the questions connected with streamlining of medical terminology, organize systematic terminological researches at research institutes and medical higher education institutions.

Systematically the Main editorial office BME deals with problems of streamlining of medical terminology. Its walls came out base materials concerning streamlining of medical terminology. She was an initiator and the organizer of the 1st All-Union conference on this question held in 1975 and also took active part in taken place in 1983. An all-Union scientific conference on streamlining and standardization of the scientific terminology organized by Gosstandart of the USSR together with Academy of Sciences of the USSR, AMPI of the USSR and VNIIKI.

The main editorial office BME combined efforts of big group of uche-nykh-physicians for creation of the first in domestic practice three-volume Encyclopaedic dictionary of medical terms (see), in Krom it was succeeded to arrange to a certain extent writing and to make scientific definitions for 60 thousand medical terms, to carry out the evidence-based choice of the main term from among synonyms, to define considerable group of the terms which were outdate, not recommended or having only historical value. In the Main editorial office BME unique terminological card files are created, to-rye can make a basis of bank of domestic medical terminology. At the initiative of the Main editorial office BME Presidium of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences made the decision on the organization of regular research terminological laboratory, edges it began to be created in 1984.

Bibliography: Topical issues of streamlining of medical terminology, under the editorship of I. P. Lidov, M., 1981; And r N and at-d about in G. D. Medical terminology in five languages, Sofia, 1979, bibliogr.; D An and l e N to about R. P. and With to in about r c about in JI. I. Linguistic problems of streamlining of scientific and technical terminology, Voir. linguistics, No. 1, page 7, 1981; Jaffray Ch. The biological nomenclature, the lane with English, M., 1980; D at y-N and N and E. I. Sostoyaniye and perspectives of development of the lingware in the industry automated system of scientific medical information, Express information, century 2, page 46, 1976; To and r bonds and P. I N. The dictionary of anatomic terms, M. — L., 1928, bibliogr.; Latin and bases of medical terminology, under the editorship of M. N. Chernyavsky, Minsk, 1980; I. P.'s Leads and With t about the h and to A. M. Sostoyaniye, problems and problems of streamlining of domestic medical terminology, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 3, page 54, 1976; Ores z and K. K t. Latin Russian-Latvian dictionary of medical terms, t. 1 — 2, Riga, 1973 — 1977; Chernyavsky M. N. Latin and bases of pharmaceutical terminology, M., 1975; Sh at about in Ya. I. The dictionary reference on medical terminology, M., 1973; Encyclopaedic dictionary of medical terms, t. 1 — 3, M., 1982 — 1984; Encyclopaedic creativity in medicine, under the editorship of I. P. Lidov and A. M. Stochik, M., 1983, bibliogr.; Doria n d W. And. N. Dorland’s illustrated medical dictionary, Philadelphia, 1974; Duden-Worterbuch medizinischer Fachaus^ driicke, hrsg. v. To. H. Ahlheim, Stuttgart, 1979; Manuila A. Dictionnaire fran^ais de medecine et de biologie, t. 1 — 4, P., 1970 — 1975; Reallexikon der Medi-zin und ihrer Grenzgebiete, Mtinchen u. a., 1977; Roberts F. Medical terms, Their origin and construction, L., 1971; S te dman Th. L. Stedman’s medical dictionary, Baltimore, 1976.

M of H. Chernyavsky, E. I. Dubynina.