TEREKHOVSKY Martyn Matveevich (1740 — 1796) — the domestic biologist and the doctor, one of the Russia's first researchers-microscopists.
After the termination of the Kiev spiritual academy and hospital school of the St. Petersburg general overland hospital in 1765 worked till 1770 in St. Petersburg as the doctor and at the same time the attendant of the Botanic garden at the Pharmaceutical island, then studied in Strasbourg where in 1775 defended the dissertation and received degree of the doctor of medicine. Upon return to St. Petersburg worked as the teacher of pharmacology, pathology and a practical hmeditsina in the Kronstadt sea hospital. Since 1780 the lecturer on anatomy in the St. Petersburg hospital, since 1783 professor of anatomy in the same place. At the same time gave lectures on botany, chemistry and a pharmacognosy and was the director of the Botanic garden.
M. M. Terekhovsky is an author (together with A. M. Shumlyansky) the project of transformation hospital schools (see) in medicochirurgical schools (see), and also author of projects of the organization of Medicochirurgical academy and «skotovrachebny school».
Its main scientific work is the thesis «About nalivochny chaos of Linney» («De chao infusorio Linnaei», 1775), in a cut the nature and an origin so-called «nalivochny animalkuly», found in various infusions was studied. Influencing animalkul toxic agents (sulfuric and salt to-tami, corrosive sublimate, potash, etc.), he observed their active movement aside, opposite to the place of influence of poisons. On this basis he drew a conclusion that «nalivochny animalkul» represent live organisms. M. M. Terekhovsky investigated also a question of their emergence in infusions. Subjecting infusions consistently to heating and cooling, it showed that animalkul perish and do not appear again. On this basis of nanometer J. Needham and G. L. Buffon's theory about spontaneous generation «nalivochny animalkuly» directly from inorganic matters was refuted and the provision on their drift from the outside is put forward. M. M. Terekhovsky investigated also changes of life activity «nalivochny animalkuly» during the cooling or heating, influence of electric current and in the conditions of a lack of air.
Works: De chao infusorio Linnaei, Argentorati, 1775 (the Russian lane, in book: S. L. Istoriya's sable of a microscope and mikroskopich. issled. in Russia in HUSh a century, page 468, M. — L., 1949).
Bibliography: Martyn Matveevich Terekhovsky and his pilot study on the nature and self-generation of microscopic organisms, in book: S. L. Istoriya's sable of a mikrosyup and mikroskopich. issled. in Russia in the 18th century, page 241, M. — L., 1949; Chistovichya. A. Istoriya of the first medical schools in Russia, SPb., 1883.
L. Ya. Blyakher.