From Big Medical Encyclopedia

TERATOLOGY medical (Greek teras, terat[os] the freak, ugliness + logos the doctrine) — the section of a teratology studying an etiology, a pathogeny, epidemiology, clinical and morphological manifestations, diagnosis, methods of treatment and prevention of inborn malformations at the person.

T. as the science began to develop in the first half of 19 century after Geoffroi St Hilaire (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1822) applied an experimental method to studying of the reasons of malformations. The term «teratology» is offered by his son Isidor Geoffroi St I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Development of T. it is closely connected with achievements of biology and medicine, especially with development of normal, comparative and pathological anatomy, embryology, genetics. The factors promoting development of medical T., are opening in 1941 avstrat. the ophthalmologist N. Gregg of teratogenic action of a virus of a clumsy rubella, opening in 1959 of a chromosomal etiology of syndromes of Down, Klaynfelter, Shereshevsky — Turner, and also the «talidomidny accident» (1959 — 1961) caused by use by pregnant women in a number of the countries of the West thalidomide (see).

The key moments of an etiology and pathogeny of inborn malformations (see) can be revealed by means of an experimental method of a research. In medical T. also clinical, genetic, morphological methods of a research and methods of antenatal diagnosis are applied. Use a wedge, methods of a research in T. has the features, first of all it concerns the anamnesis and survey. Features of the anamnesis are data on similar inborn malformations at relatives of the patient, a consanguineous relation of his parents, action of possible teratogens (see the Teratogenesis). Special significance is attached to survey of the patient with an inborn malformation as it is frequent only at the accounting of all features of outward, including and such, to-rye have no functional value (e.g., length and the direction of palpebral fissures, a form and position of auricles, position of fingers of brushes), the diagnosis can be established. Such method wedge, researches, as dermatoglyphics (see), it is applied preferential in a teratology. To the genetic methods applied in medical T., belong genealogical, cytogenetic, population and statistical and twin (see. Genetic analysis ). Methods of antenatal diagnosis — the X-ray analysis, a fetografiya, ultrasonic investigation, fetosko-shchsh, etc. allow to establish the diagnosis of an inborn malformation during pregnancy.

In the USSR researches on medical T. are carried out in laboratories of scientific research institute and at departments of medical in-t, it is the widest — in Ying-those medical genetics the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences and its branch.

Materials on medical T. «Urology», «Archive of pathology», «Genetics», etc., in similar foreign medical magazines, the international magazine «Teratology» and in annually published collections of the Birth Defects series are published in such magazines as «Pediatrics», «Obstetrics and gynecology».

Bibliography: Teratology of the person, under the editorship of G. I. Lazyuk, M., 1979; Cottier N * Pathogenese, Bd 1, V. and. and., 1980; Potter E. L. ampere-second of of an i g J. M of Pathology of the fetus and the infant, L., 1976.

G. I. Lazyuk.