TENZORETSEPTORA (Latin tensus stretched + receptors) — the receptors perceiving the mechanical irritations arising at stretching of body tissues.
T. are one of versions mechanioreceptors (see). Among T. distinguish the special stretch receptors put in structures of a musculoskeletal system (see. Proprioceptors ), and different types of the usual mechanioreceptors localized in these or those bodies and fabrics. K T. the majority of mechanioreceptors of skin, internals belongs (went. - kish. a path, urinogenital system, a respiratory organs, etc.) and vessels (see. Angiotseptora ).
The person and vertebrate animals have all T. belong to fabric aresnitchaty mechanioreceptors; receptors of muscles (muscle spindles) and sinews (tendinous bodies of Golgi) are most studied. At backboneless animals to T. ciliate mechanioreceptors belong as aresnitchaty (e.g., stretch receptors of muscles at Crustacea), and (e.g., hordotonalny and miokhordotonalny bodies of arthropods). At the heart of the mechanism of excitement of all T. stretching of the perceiving substrate of a receptor at mechanical impact on it lies. Functional purpose of T. variously also depends on type of a mechanioreceptor. So, muscle spindles thanks to features of an arrangement (parallel to extrafusal muscle fibers) are excited in muscular tissue at a muscle strain, and the tendinous bodies of Golgi «included» to consistently muscle fibers are excited at a tension of a muscle. Thus muscle spindles signal about degree of a muscle strain (they are called sensors of length), and tendinous bodies of Golgi — about degree of its tension (sensors of tension).
Efferent regulation of T. it is carried out generally by change of a tone of surrounding fabrics, and also thanks to reduction or relaxation of auxiliary structures of T. (e.g., intrafusal muscle fibers in muscle spindles).
For studying of T. apply the same methods, as at a research of other mechanioreceptors.
Specific pathology of T. it is not observed. Disorders of sensitivity (see), at to-rykh are noted changes in activity of T., treat usual disturbances of sensitivity of skin, a musculoskeletal system, internals.
Bibliography: Ilyinsky O. B. Physiology of mechanioreceptors. L., 1975; Handbook of sensory physiology, ed. by H. Autrum, v. 3/2, B. — N. Y., 1974; Matthews P. B.C. Mammalian muscle receptors and their central actions, Baltimore, 1972.
O. B. Ilyinsky.