From Big Medical Encyclopedia

TENNIS — sports ball game on the special platform (court) by means of rackets. Participate in a game 2 (a single game) or 4 persons (a pair game). The game is held in the open air or in the gym on the playground, shaped a rectangle 23,77 m long and width for a pair game of 10,97 m and for a single game of 8,23 m. The essence of a game is that players, taking the opposite sides of the platform, blow of a racket throw a ball over a grid 1,06 m high, aiming that the opponent could not reflect a ball correctly.

And abroad the table tennis (Ping-Pong) is not less popular in our country. The game is played by a small celluloid ball and small rackets on a table (length of 274,3 cm, width of 152,5 cm), the surface to-rogo is halved by a grid 15,25 cm high. This game well influences an organism, is available to all age, for it specially equipped platforms are not required that allows to be engaged all the year round in it and to strengthen the health.

Systematic occupations tennis strengthen cardiovascular and respiratory system, develop speed of reaction, dexterity, endurance, an eye estimation, strengthen a nervous system, cause high and peculiar mobility. The tennis, as well as all sports, belongs to physical exercises of variable intensity. At trainings and at competitions tennis players experience big exercise and mental stresses. Duration of trainings of the qualified tennis players makes 24 — 30 hours a week. Loads of various systems of an organism can be considerable, especially at highly skilled athletes. So, heart rate in an intense tennis match can reach 180 ud. in 1 min.; considerably maximal ventilation of lungs increases; oxygen consumption at the leading tennis players reaches 6 — 6,5 l in 1 min.

Considering that the level of training loads in modern tennis is rather high, they demand careful medical control and obligatory use of recovery actions. Medical control (see) includes assessment of physical development, a research of the central nervous system (accuracy of reaction to time, accuracy of a differentiation of muscular efforts, stability of attention, etc.), determination of level of functionality of an organism according to a research of cardiovascular and respiratory systems and biochemical researches.

In recent years for maintenance of tennis players hydrotherapeutic procedures, recovery massage (see) and baths are widely used.

Training in playing tennis is begun from 7 — 9 years, to participation in competitions allowed from 9 — 15 years.

The tennis player can get the following injuries: gaps, stretchings of the copular device of an ankle joint, radiocarpal and elbow joints; microtraumatic defeats of the capsular and copular device of knee and coxofemoral joints; repeated small damages in an elbow joint (see. Epicondylitis ). Long occupations tennis can result in some asymmetry in skeletal muscles and a bone tissue and consequently, and in a bearing. It is caused by the fact that the game is played by one hand and therefore loading falls preferential on the musculoskeletal device of one of upper extremities.

Considering that reasonably limited playing tennis has wide recreational value, classes by the simplified rules are recommended by tennis to persons of different age and also as cure of medical rehabilitation for a number of diseases of cardiovascular system, a respiratory organs, a musculoskeletal system and disturbances of exchange processes.

See also Games , Physical culture and sport .

Bibliography: Ammeline A. N and Pashas N and V. A N. Table tennis, M., 1980; Belits-Geyman S. P. Tennis, M., 1977; Gandelsman A. B. of ismir-N about in K. M. Physiological bases of a technique of a sports training, M., 1970; Mironova 3. Page and Morozova E. M. Sports traumatology, M., 1976; Tennis, Collection of methodical and information materials, M., 1981; Fomenko B. I., Tennis, M., 1981.

N. M. Valeev.