TENIOSIS (taeniosis) — the helminthosis from group of tsestodoz caused by the pork (armed) tapeworm and which is characterized by dispeptic frustration and a passive vykhozhdeniye of joints and parts of a body of the activator with excrements.
T. meets everywhere where pig-breeding is developed, it is most widespread in India, China, the countries of Latin America and Africa. In the USSR is registered in isolated cases, it is preferential in the western districts of the country.
The activator — pork, or armed, a tapeworm, Taenia solium Linnaeus, 1758; a tape-worm (see. Flat worms ). Reaches 2 — 3 m in adulthood. The head (scolex) of helminth has up to 2 mm in the diameter, is supplied with two rows kryuchyev (from here the name «the armed tapeworm») and four muscular suckers (fig. 1); after a thin neck (region of growth of a tapeworm) lasts multijointed (to 1000 joints) a strobile, the forefront a cut is represented by young wide sexless joints, and average and back — mature hermaphroditic joints with a squared size of 10 — 12 X 5 — 6 mm. In each mature joint there are 7 — 12 branches of a uterus (fig. 2), in to-rykh contain to 50 thousand coated eggs with a germ (oncosphere). To the environment of egg get at destruction of the joints which departed from a body of helminth, to-rye are passively allocated with patients at defecation.
Oncospheres of a pork tapeworm are almost indistinguishable from oncospheres of a bull tapeworm (see. Teniarinkhoz ).
Adult helminths parasitize in a small bowel of the person, to-ry is the only definitivny (final) owner of a pork tapeworm. Larvae (a cysticercus, or Finns) a pork tapeworm parasitize in an organism of the intermediate owner, the Crimea is a domestic pig, the wild pig, a dog, a cat and sometimes the person is more rare.
In went. - kish. a path of the intermediate owner of an oncosphere leave egg, get into blood vessels and are brought in muscular tissue, a brain, hypodermic cellulose, internals. In 2 — 21/2 months larvae — a cysticercus (Finns), representing small — up to 20 X 10 mm in size — vials of liquid (fig. 3) and the armed kryuchyama screwed inside by a head are formed here.
In this stage helminth also is invasive for the person. Pigs are a source of an invasion for the person. The person catches T. at consumption of meat of a pig, containing a cysticercus. In a gleam of a small bowel of the person the head of a cysticercus is turned out outside and attached by suckers and kryuchyam to a wall of a gut, the cover of a cysticercus is digested, and from a neck joints begin to gemmate; gradually the tapeworm reaches full development. From the moment of a proglatyvaniye of a cysticercus before emergence of the first mature joints in excrements there pass 67 — 72 days. Life expectancy of a pork tapeworm in intestines of the person makes several years.
Patol. the processes arising at T., are caused by mechanical influence of the tapeworm breaking an integrity of a mucous membrane of a small bowel, a toksiko-sensitizing effect of waste products of helminth, directly parasitizing, i.e. use by a parasite of the nutrients intended for the owner.
Patients usually complain of increase or a loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, feeling of a lump in a throat, sometimes an abdominal pain, an itch in the field of an anal orifice, a diarrhea, a headache, dizziness, irritability, a sleep disorder, a lose of weight (masses) of a body. A wedge, manifestations are expressed poorly and can even be absent. At nek-ry patients periodically (once in several days) joints at defecation are allocated. There can be changes from blood — a moderate eosinophilia, anemia.
Disease of T. threatens with emergence tsisnitserkoza (see) since at nausea and vomiting mature joints in about tens of thousands of eggs of a tapeworm can come to a stomach from intestines; further the oncospheres exempted from a cover of eggs from a duodenum actively get into blood, are carried on all organism and cause damage of skeletal muscles, heart, an eye, c. N of page. In rare instances, except autoinvasion, cysticercosis develops at the person during the swallowing eggs of a pork tapeworm with food if it is contaminated by excrements of the people sick with a teniosis.
Recognition of T. it is difficult since eggs of helminth in Calais usually are absent, the active otkhozhdeniye of joints is not observed. The diagnosis is made on the basis of the anamnesis, by a wedge, pictures and a careful repeated macroscopic research of excrements, sometimes resort to a method of washing of excrements for detection of joints.
Treatment carry out in the conditions of a hospital. Apply phenasal in a dose of 2 g with the subsequent, 1,5 — 2 hours later (but no more than 4 hours), reception of salt laxative. Laxative is appointed for the fastest removal of eggs of a tapeworm and prevention of possible developing of cysticercosis as phenasal does not possess ovotsidny action. It is also necessary to take measures for the prevention of vomiting (respect for absolute rest, a hot-water bottle or a mustard plaster on area of an epigastrium) to exclude hit of eggs from intestines in a stomach. In day of treatment and in the next few days after it strict observance of measures of personal hygiene is necessary (see). Parasites and their fragments selected with excrements during treatment are neutralized or boiling of excrements, or by their flood for 1 hour by abrupt boiled water in the closed vessel. After treatment of the patient is under medical observation for 2 years.
Forecast serious in connection with possibility of cysticercosis.
Prevention includes identification, treatment and medical examination of patients, improvement of settlements for the purpose of the prevention of pollution of the soil the excrements of patients containing joints of a pork tapeworm; veterinary sanitary inspection (see) behind slaughter of pigs and control of pork on cysticercosis; prevention in sale of the pork infected with larvae of a pork tapeworm; wide dignity. - a gleam, work among the population. For personal prevention it is recommended to eat only the pork which underwent veterinary health control during the cooking not to taste some crude forcemeat from pork, to eat only well boiled thoroughly or fried thoroughly pork.
Bibliography: Davies A. Medicinal therapy of intestinal helminthoses, the lane with English, page 107, Geneva, WHO, 1975; The Multivolume guide to microbiology, clinic and epidemiology of infectious diseases under the editorship of H. N. Shukova-Verezh-nikova, t. 9, page 477, M., 1 968: Parasitic zoonoza, the lane with English, page 6 4, Geneva, WHO, 1980.
V. K. Karnaukhov.