From Big Medical Encyclopedia

TEMPERAMENT (Latin temperamentum proportionality, the device) — the complex dynamic characteristics of mentality of the person including two main components — emotionality and the general activity (motive and speech). Emotionality characterizes the person from the point of view of a variety, mobility and power of its feelings, affects and moods (joy, anger, fear, grief, etc.). The general activity characterizes interaction of the person with Wednesday and other people from the point of view of speed, a rhythm, intensity, endurance, plasticity and nek-ry other parties. The doctrine about T. arose in medicine and it was closely connected with its practical requests. Still Hippocrates suggested to consider T. at diagnosis and the choice of methods of treatment, napr, a dietotherapy. Ideas of the nature of T. developed in close connection with the doctrine about constitutions (see). It is not necessary to identify these concepts, however. As I. P. Pavlov emphasized, T. is a component of the constitution — the individual Ekhmotsionalno-volevoy type of self-control of processes of life activity of a human body.

Various steady combinations of dynamic characteristics of mentality of the person form types T. Searching biol. substrate T. and justifications of its typology moved forward the different points of view. Hippocrates connected distinctions of T. with a different ratio of blood, bile, black bile and slime, allocated types of the sanguine person, choleric person, melancholiac and phlegmatic person. In an organism of sanguine persons blood, choleric persons — bile, melancholiacs — black bile, phlegmatic persons — slime prevails. I. Kant and P. F. Lesgaft considered that at the heart of T. features of the blood circulatory system and properties of blood lie. E. Krechmer and Sheldon (W. N of Sheldon) connected T. people with their constitution (see). I. P. Pavlov existence of various types T. explained with features of functioning of c. N of page (see. Types of higher nervous activity ). This approach gained development in works of B. M. Teplov, V. D. Nebylitsyn, P. V. Simonov and other researchers. Though influence of structural and functional properties of c. N of page (level of an aktpvirovannost, boundaries-polusharnye of a ratio, plasticity and lability of nervous processes, etc.) is the most powerful in comparison with influence on mental activity of other subsystems of an organism, however any of these subsystems in itself is not an exhaustive basis T. Neobkhodim the accounting of characteristics of activity of all main fiziol. the systems of an organism fixed in its hereditary device. Complexity of objective definition of indicators of T. and its small study biol. substrate complicates creation of exhaustive system of types T.

In scientific and applied medicine the greatest distribution was gained by classification of T., based on Hippocrates's views, according to a cut sanguine persons call people mobile, with a various and rich mimicry, easily enduring the failures aiming at change of impressions. Choleric persons — are impulsive, quick-tempered, prompt in the acts, are subject to sharp change of moods. Melancholiacs — are reserved, inclined to deep experiences even of little significant events, are timid. Phlegmatic persons — are sluggish, difficult switch from one type of activity to another, are characterized by constancy and depth of feelings and moods.

In practice of psychological and medical researches, in addition to gippo-kratovsky typology of T., widely use Ayzenk's typology (N. Eysenck) based on a biographical method and Leongard's typology (To. Leonhard), based on a method of inspection and observation. According to Ayzenk, type T. the individual is defined by a combination of two characteristics of mental activity: degrees of sociability and openness (ekstraversiya or introversion) and features of emotional processes (emotional stability or neyrotizm). Thirst for new impressions, for risky forms of behavior, the increased motor and speech performance, sociability, dominance of joyful mood are characteristic of extroverts. Block of movements and the speech, dominance of negative mood, isolation, weak thirst for new impressions are characteristic of introverts. People with neyrotichesky T. are characterized by sharp change of mood, sensitivity, irritability. People emotionally steady differ in constancy of mood, self-confidence, high emotional resistance to negative impacts. Ayzenk correlates the types T. with gippokratovsky: the combination of an ekstraversiya and emotional stability corresponds to type of the sanguine person, an ekstraversiya and emotional lability — the choleric person, introver-sleep also emotional stability — the phlegmatic person, an introversion and emotional lability — the melancholiac.

According to Leongardu, there are 4 main types of temperament: gipertnmicheskiya, characterized by the increased thirst of activity, existence of optimistic lines in behavior, the initiative raised by speech activity, vivacity and gaiety; dysthymic, for to-rogo the general passivity, the lowered speech and physical activity is characteristic; affective and labile, at Krom sharp change of gipertimpchesky and dysthymic states is observed; affektivnoekzaltirovanny, carriers to-rogo easily are enraptured with joyful events and in blank despair from sad.

Knowledge of type T. allows to predict character of possible accentuation of the personality at adverse, stressful effects and in nek-ry cases character and an outcome of a mental disorder.

In a crust, time interest in studying of a role of T amplifies. in emergence of various forms of pathology. Medical practice shows that communication between type T. and certain nosological forms of diseases it is difficult and contradictory. At the same time there is a number of concepts of T., presenting its nature and value for medicine in the distorted form. So, for example, E. Krech-mer considered T. as the factor which is fatally predetermining to this or that form of pathology. Unambiguously treat relationship of T. and diseases also supporters of a so-called biotype of logical medicine (see Neogippokratizm). Many representatives of psychosomatic medicine not dialectically rigidly connect developing of diseases with a certain type of the personality, randomly interpreting communication between them. So, for example, rheumatism arises allegedly at persons with masochistic affection for one of parents (see the Psychosomatic medicine).

In the Soviet medicine deep-dialectic view of a ratio of T. and diseases were developed by I. P. Pavlov, A. A. Bogomolets, M. S. Maslov, M. V. Chernorutsky, etc. a certain communication between a somatotype and developing of a hypertension, a peptic ulcer, tuberculosis and other nosological forms Was shown. At the same time detailed studying of this problem is interfered by a number of objective factors. Lack of the standard classification of T. complicates synthesis of the data obtained by different researchers. Unresolved are questions of a role of genetic and environmental factors in formation of T., opportunity and nature of influence of pathological processes on T. and other Nek-rye's number from these questions are studied by means of psychological tests (see. psychological tests ), the integral characteristics of mental activity giving an objective assessment.

Studying of relationship between separate types T. with certain forms of pathology has basic value for further improvement of methods of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases, and also development of methodology of professional selection.

Bibliography: Ananyev B. G. of People as subject of knowledge, L., 1968; B leu - x e r V. M. and B at r l and h at to JI. T. Psychological diagnosis of intelligence and personality, Kiev, 1978; Krechmer E. A structure of a body and character, the lane with it., M. — JI., 1930; Leongard K. Aktsentuirovannye of the personality, the lane with it., Kiev, 1981; Nebylitsyn V. D. Psychophysiological researches of individual distinctions, M., 1976; The Sketch of the theory of temperament, under the editorship of V. S. Merlin, Perm, 1973, bibliogr.; Pavlov I. P. Complete works, t. 3, book 2, page 77, M. — L., 1951; Rusalov V. M. Biological bases of individual and psychological distinctions, M., 1979; Simonov P. V. Higher nervous activity of the person, Motivational and emotional aspects, M., 1975.

B. F. Lomov, V. M. Rusalov, G. of X. Shingarov.