From Big Medical Encyclopedia

TELEVISION IN MEDICINE — the method of scientific research, diagnosis, training and carrying out sanitary and educational work connected with transfer on distance of images of motionless and mobile objects by means of radio-electronic devices. Use of T. in m promotes increase in labor productivity of the doctor and laboratory assistant, creates for them a possibility of work out of a zone of harmful effects, provides remote overseeing by patients, communication with them without direct contact, improvement of educational process, influences creation of automated control systems to lay down. - the prof. work, expands possibilities of scientific research, etc.

In medicine the special uzkotselevy television equipment executed in the form of closed (without broadcast) systems is used, as a rule. The elementary television system consists of the transferring television camera, the communication line for transfer of electric video signal on distance and the video monitor for observation (TV). In a television camera there is a consecutive line-by-line turning into video signal of the image projected by means of a lens on the transferring television tube. In the video monitor from the video signal transferred on the communication line on the screen the image forms. More complex television systems are supplemented with processing devices of the image for the purpose of its reproduction in a look, convenient for interpretation, and allocation diagnostically of the most essential details, and also automatic devices for quantitative and qualitative analysis of video signal on information signs.

Use of television in medicine, as well as development of all television equipment, is connected with opening and inventions of a number of scientists, including domestic P. I. Bakhmetyeva, A. G. Stoletov, A.S. Popov, V. K. Zvorykin, S. I. Katayeva, P. V. Shmakov, P. V. Timofeev, G. V. Braude pi other. Idea of use of T. in m for a research of internals of the person it was stated by B. L. Rozing in 1923. Practical implementation of television in medicine belongs to the 50th 20 century. Now it is difficult to find area of visualization of medical images, in a cut the television equipment to some extent would not be used. From the studied object medical television systems can be classified by area of the registered radiation spectrum on the systems working in the visible range of a range and the systems working in the radiation, invisible to an eye (x-ray, infrared, ultrasonic).

The television equipment for demonstration of surgeries, including carried out under a microscope that is especially important during the training belongs to the systems working in the visible range of a range. At the same time the color transferring cameras which are structurally combined with the lamp are used (see. Surgery block). Under a microscope apply stereotelevision installations to carrying out operations. Television systems in combination with flexible fiber light guides increase informational content of researches of internal hollow bodies (see Endomicroscopy), enlarging the color image by 10 — 40 times. Use of television improves possibilities of survey of interiors of an eye, providing at the same time carrying out objective measurements of parameters of vessels of a retina and eye environments.

The videophone allowing to talk to patients without direct contact with them gained distribution in clinics. Use of television in medicine and biology in the analysis of microparticles is effective. The television microscopes interfaced to special analyzers provide bystry quantitative calculation of microparticles in the set volume of drug, and also make the analysis of their form. In the visible range of a range also television systems applied in a space and air medicine work. They provide visual studying of life activity of the astronauts and pilots who are in extreme conditions at long distances from the center of observation and management. By means of television overseeing by a physical training of astronauts and pilots on the special equipment (thermopressures chamber, centrifuges, etc.), and also in isolation chambers is made (see). Besides, modeling of optional versions of the video information appearing in flight for the purpose of training and a training is used.

The medical X-ray television treats the systems working in a radiation spectrum, invisible to an eye, (see below).

Visualization of infrared (thermal) radiation of body surfaces of the person by means of the thermal imager provides identification of various inflammatory processes p to their localization, borders of burns, malignancies, etc. Infrared television systems allow to obtain valuable diagnostic information.

Television methods of visualization of ultrasonic echo signals (see. Ultrasonic diagnosis), use to-rykh in medical practice extends, become irreplaceable means of diagnosis of defeats of soft tissues and bodies when details on x-ray films are hard to distinguish (a gall bladder, a spleen, heart, etc.).

In process of improvement of the television equipment the color, volume, spektrozonalny television is more and more widely applied in medicine. Special attention is paid to development of the digital television equipment, use for training and a dignity. - a gleam, works of such means as a video and the large-format matrix displaying screens.

The X-ray television allows to reproduce by means of special optoelectronic devices and communication channels the x-ray image on the screen of the TV. Its formation is connected with implementation in 1948 in hmed. to the practician of the electron-optical amplifier of brightness of the x-ray image. The early X-ray television studies belong to 1955 when the fr. radiologist Nua (M. of Noix) showed the movement of a brush and process of swallowing, and R.Truchot with coauthors the same year showed the movement of a kidney by means of X-ray-television. In 1959 R. J anker reported on the IX international radiological congress on development and formation of X-ray television and its implementation in a wedge, practice.

In the USSR the X-ray television image was received in 1953 by the engineer V. S. Sokolov and the prof. K. P. Molokanov. However the early X-ray television studies with use of electron-optical amplifiers and the sensitive transferring television cameras were conducted in 1962 by the prof. I. L. Tager and And. X. Rabkin.

For obtaining the X-ray television image the x-ray image shall undergo a number of physical transformations: at first it will be transformed and amplifies by means of the electron-optical amplifier, then the received optical image is projected on a photosensitive surface of the transferring television tube where it will be transformed to electric video signal. This signal on the wire communication line is transmitted to the receiving device where the strengthened video signal influences an electron beam of a kinescope and changes its intensity. The electron beam of a kinescope modulated by the arriving video signals draws in detail the transferred picture on the fluorescent screen in the form of points of various brightness. The picture is developed so quickly that an eye of the person perceives it as the integral image. Transfer of the movement at the same time is carried out, as in cinematography, by personnel reproduction of the image.

Schematic diagram of X-ray television: 1 — a X-ray tube; 2 — an object of a research; 3 — the x-ray electron-optical converter; 4 — a lens of transfer of the image; 5 — the transferring television camera; 6 — the communication line; 7 — the video monitor; 8 — the block of formation and processing of video signal.

The scheme of a X-ray screen televisual apparatus represents a closed circuit, a source of x-ray emission, the x-ray electron-optical amplifier, a lens of transfer of the image, the transferring television camera, the communication line and the reception video monitor (fig.) are making a cut.

The X-ray television expanded the field of use of x-ray raying. Use of T. in m raised possibilities of diagnosis of diseases, reduced beam loading at rentgenol. a research, allowed to transfer the image to distance and to make roentgenoscopy in the nezatem-nenny room, having facilitated work of the doctor, improved pedagogical process.

Use of a video on a magnetic tape for the purpose of documentation of the X-ray television image increases reliability and informational content rentgenol. data, reduces beam loadings on inspected and radiologists, promotes economy of photographic materials, creates a possibility of repeated viewing of results of a research by many persons at consultation and in pedagogical work.

See also X-ray inspection , Roentgenoscopy .

Bibliography: R. E. bulls and to Cork-is new Yu. F. Televideniye in medicine and biology, L., 1968, bibliogr.; Rab-kin And. X. and E r m and to about in N. P. Electron-optical strengthening, X-ray television, X-ray cinematography, M., 1969; Technical means of X-ray television, under the editorship of I. A. Pereslegin, page 241, M., 1981; Lehrbuch der Rontgendiag-nostik, hrsg. v. H. Schinz u. a., Bd 1, S. 71, Stuttgart, 1965.

E. B. Kozlowski, A. I. Mazurov; And. X. Rabkin (X-ray television).