TELEMETRY (synonym telemetry) — a way of a remote research of various processes by measurement of the parameters characterizing the studied process (the phenomenon, an object) and their transfers on distance to certain point where their processing and use is carried out.
Emergence of T. it is connected with the invention and development of wire telecommunication and especially radio communications, and is later than optical communication. In the beginning T. served for the meteorological and scientific purposes; in the 20th 20 its century began to apply in the industry, at first to management of electrical power systems, then in the chemical and atomic industry, and in 50 — the 60th for space researches, the biological and medical purposes.
The main parts of the system which is carrying out process of T., the object of measurement, primary converter are (see. Sensors ), intensifying and sending device, communication channel, receiving device, equipment of processing and presentation of this telemetry. Information transfer on communication channels is called radio telemetry.
T. it is used at management of many processes, including industrial facilities, flights of spaceships and work of space stations, and also by transfer of weather data, characteristics of the environment and biol. the object which is in space or on Earth (in a zone of relative unavailability for the natural reasons), or in the special purposes. The acquired information about the object of a research remote from point of studying on certain distances, is transferred on communication channels. Telemetry is carried out means of telemechanics, i.e. such means, to-rye provide transfer of measuring information on various distances and present it in the form, the most convenient for direct use (perception) by the operator (researcher) or for input of this information in the COMPUTER for the purpose of after-treatment and use of results of processing for management. Measuring information from primary converters (sensors) arrives by means of intensifying and sending devices on control centers (control) or a continuity cyclically, or upon the demand of the operator after sending of a special signal — the request containing the address (code designation) of the measured parameter. Telemetric systems shall have ability to process not only quickly changing processes, but also very slowly changing data with high precision, without allowing distortion of izmeryaekhmy size and big delay of signals, to have high degree of reliability of transfer of commands of management, high extent of automation of processes of collecting, processing and use of information.
T. also it is used when it is necessary or it is reasonable to combine the separated or territorially dispersed objects of management in a uniform complex or when presence of the person on object of management is undesirable or it is impossible (the atomic and chemical industry, control of the unmanned ship, a planet research vehicle, work of laboratory or the device on space remote bodies, planets etc.).
T. for telecontrol played a big role in space exploration. Devices for T. transfer from space objects to control centers data on work of onboard systems, necessary measuring information, including data on the state of health of astronauts, on experimental animals and plants.
T. widely use during the studying various biol. the phenomena and processes, for measurement various biol. indicators (see. Biotelemetry ). At biological telemetric researches on a body of interest (the person, animal) strengthen the special electrodes or sensors, signals from to-rykh characterizing cardiac performance, easy and other bodies and systems of an organism are transferred on communication channels (radio, phone) to collection points for information where they are registered and processed. Using methods of biotelemetry, at long distances investigate fiziol. the changes in an organism happening under the influence of space environment at sports activities, work, during stay in conditions of a pressure chamber (see), isolation chambers (see), in chambers of an intensive care, ambulance cars and other simulated condition.
In practical health care the main attention is paid to T. cordial activity of the patient. So, e.g., the telemetric Tur-IBM system which is used in emergency medical service is intended for transfer of the ECG of the patient on the channel At KB communication from ambulance cars in institutions of the cardiological help (see. Cardiology ). The telemetric systems «Waves-2» and «Wave-3» transfer the ECG of the patient from the ambulance car on radio station or from a hospital on a telephone communication channel to the relevant institution.
In hospitals apply also telemetric Jaguar system, edges are provided by control of cordial activity of the patient, registers an ECG in three assignments and enters the cardiogram into the COMPUTER for processing and decision-making.
For a research fiziol. conditions of astronauts the onboard multichannel telemetric system with a set of the main devices allowing to investigate action of the heart, vessels, a brain, respiratory function, a physical activity of the astronaut etc. is specially developed. For a research of cordial activity and work of a respiratory organs, muscular activity during the sports occupations, and also during the definition of loadings after the postponed serious illness the tiny teleelectrocardiographs and prefixes to them which are turning on the intensifying device, a radio transmitter of signals of an ECG, breath, etc. are developed to-rye are registered the receiving device which is on nek-rum distance from the examinee. Similar systems are applied also to studying of physiology of work of the person, to intra-room T. at inspection of the patients who are in polyclinic or stationary conditions and also for telemetric control of patients during rehabilitation or for patients, the state of health to-rykh demands constant control behind activity of their cardiovascular system. In such cases the patient carries the tiny electrocardiograph with UKV-ra-dioperedatchikom, the ECG monitoring action of the heart and sending at corresponding change to the guardroom a signal, on Krom measures are taken for rendering medical aid.
Biotelemetric methods of a research allow to study the processes happening and in an organism. E.g., for measurement of the rn-environment, temperature, pressure and other characteristics in went. - kish. a path the patient swallows a radiopill (see. Stomach, methods of a research ) with the built-in subminiature radio transmitter supplied with a set of sensitive primary converters.
In process of development of various primary converters the range of radio-telemetric researches of internals of the person considerably will extend. Development telemetric fiziol. researches will help to disclose many patterns of change of activity of bodies and systems of the live organism staying in space, the processes happening in an organism at the raised loadings during work and sports activities at development of pathology during a disease, during recovery and rehabilitation. With development of T. the medical institutions having higher potential of the technical and specialized help will be able to adjust assessment fiziol. conditions of the patient demanding the emergency intervention of medical specialists. Further development will be gained by telemetric communication in emergency medical service.
Bibliography: Biotelemetry, the lane with English, under the editorship of N. A. Bernstein and JI. A. Vodolazsky, M., 1965; Ilyin V. A. Telecontrol and telemetry, M., 1974, bibliogr.; Problems of radio telemetry in physiology and medicine, under the editorship of V. V. Larin, Sverdlovsk, 1968; Rosen - l and V. V t. Radio telemetric researches in sports medicine, M., 1967, bibliogr.
R. I. Utyamyshev.