From Big Medical Encyclopedia

TECHNICAL MEANS OF TRAINING (TMT) — technical devices (cars, complexes) with the training information (program) entered into them promoting increase in efficiency and quality of training.

Allocate to the place Pl and a role in educational process T. village of the lake of general purpose (COMPUTER, terminal devices of different function, simulators of impact on sense bodys of the person, complex exercise machines, training grounds etc.), T. the villages of the lake intended for a specific subject matter, and T. the villages of the lake providing carrying out separate types of occupations.

T. villages of the lake are intended for the solution of such problems of training as: information transfer, formation of skills in use of the gained knowledge at the solution of practical tasks, management of cognitive activity of trainees and control of assimilation of a training material by pupils.

According to it distinguish technical means of search and information transfer (TSPI); technical means of a training and formation of practical skills (TST); technical means of self-training (TSSO) and control of knowledge (TSK). By means of technical means of information transfer reproduction and transfer of the educational information which is contained in printing and graphic materials on films, in magnetic and sound records, etc. is carried out. Technical means of control — mechanical, electromechanical and electronic devices, or the small cybernetic machines working according to the special program of control provide information on assimilation of a training material. Technical means of self-training are the devices, the car and complexes working on special to the training program put in them and the possibilities of technical means of information transfer and control combining in themselves. They are used for independent studying by pupils of a training material. The technical means used for instilling of practical skills and a training (mechanical, electromechanical and electronic devices with program prefixes and without them, simple and difficult, with adaptation and without it), imitate work on real samples of the equipment, including the medical equipment, models of human organs, and provide acquisition of primary practical skills in work on them. They can work both according to the special training program, and without it.

T. villages of the lake significantly influence character, receptions and ways of work of teachers and trainees, apply them on all types of studies where it methodically reasonable, economic and proved in psikhologo-iyedagogiche-skom the relation.

At lectures technical means of information transfer are more often used; on colloquiums and a practical training — technical means of control; at independent study of a new training material — means of self-training; for fixing of the gained knowledge and development of practical skills — technical means tre-nprovkp, means the supernumerary of an ichesky projection and the controlling automatic machines of individual use.

T. villages of the lake shall meet to a number of requirements: to create optimal conditions for perception of educational information; the training influence of T. the village of the lake shall correspond to sensual, motive and cogitative functions of the person. Important condition of development and use of T. the village of the lake is establishment for each specific goal of training of a type of the most rational influence providing the most effective digestion of the theoretical material of a pla promoting formation of practical skills. Use in T is of great importance. village of the lake of the latest developments of the technology of information transfer, such as stereoimage, stereophonics, light show, video, big television screen of the black-and-white and color image, etc. T. villages of the lake shall be simple and uniform in management.

Use of T. the village of the lake allows to activate significantly educational process, to increase efficiency of all types of studies, labor productivity of teachers and trainees. At the same time use involves them more rigid regulation of activity of the teacher and trainees, demands a lot of work on preparation of didactic materials (filmstrips, educational movies, records on a magnetic film, cards of control, the training programs etc.).

In the conditions of broad use of T. villages of the lake creative efforts of the teacher are generally directed to development and creation of scientific bases of teaching discipline and the solution of problems of management of cognitive activity of trainees. The teacher, shifting a number of the functions of not creative character to T. the village of the lake, has more opportunities for individual work with trainees.

Bibliography: Bespalko V. The programmed training, M., 1969; 3 and - N about in e in S. I. Educational process at the Soviet higher school, M., 1975; Also Fedorov A. A. Is angry about * t and r e in A. A. Technical means of training in the highest military schools, M., 1976; M and r h e N to E. K. Cars for training, M., 1974; The Scientific organization of educational process in the highest technical educational institutions, under the editorship of G1. D. Lebedeva, etc., M., 1972; N and to and and d r about in N. D. The programmed training and the ideas of cybernetics, M., 1970; P about with e l I am a N and - 11 and O. K. Use of technical means in teaching social sciences in higher education institution, M., 1974; Technical means of training and control, under the editorship of IO. N. Kushe Leva, M., 1973.

N. L. Kizima