From Big Medical Encyclopedia

TARTU STATE UNIVERSITY, medical faculty — the highest medical educational institution, oldest in the USSR.

Main building of the Tartu state university.

In 1632 in the Tartu academy, or Gustaviane's Academy (by name the Swedish king Gustav II Adolf), it was created by medical f-t, to-ry existed till 1710. In 1802 Derptsky was open for un-t (according to the ancient name of the city of est of Tarbatu), in Krom activity medical f-that was resumed. In 1893 in connection with renaming of the city of un-t began to be called Yuryevsky. Teaching was conducted in Russian. After Great October socialist revolution teaching in Estonian is entered, and by un-t in 1919 it is renamed in Tartu.

In 17 century on medical f-those there were departments of theoretical and applied medicine. Students studied anatomy, botany, physics, chemistry, pharmaceutical science, physiology, a terapevtika and surgery. Professors S. Virdig, L. Mikrander, Ya. F. Belov, JI. Brown, etc. aimed at evident teaching (occupations anatomy were followed by openings of corpses of animals and people) and attached great value to experimenting in the field of chemistry and physics. Medical f-t Tartu un-that was some kind of link between scientific centers of Russia and Western Europe. Pupils un-that worked as doctors and druggists in the Baltics, the nek-ry cities of Russia, Sweden and Germany.

In 1802 f-t consisted of five departments and one extraordinary professorate. Over time the number of departments increased. In 1804 D. G. Balk founded policlinic, polyclinic teaching is entered. In 1804 — 1806 therapeutic, surgical and obstetric clinics, in 1820 — department of physiology and pathology, in 1843 — pharmaceutical are open for in-t, in 1847 — the first-ever laboratory of experimental pharmacology, in 1880 — psychiatric clinic, in 1885 — bacteriological laboratory, in 1888 — the sanitary station.

I. F. Erdman in 1820 implemented in a wedge. to the practician Laennek's stethoscope, A. A. Schmidt created the enzymatic theory of a blood coagulation (1861 — 1892), E. Bergmann and K. K. Reyer in 1875 began to apply a listerovsky method in surgical clinic, N. I. Lunin opened in 1880 value of polyneuramins food of animals, V. G. Tsege-Manteyfel offered in 1897 rubber gloves (a so-called sterile hand) etc.

In 1828 — 1839 at Of this year at. worked Professorial with in-t — the Russia's first special educational institution for training of domestic research and educational personnel. Among his graduates there is N. I. Pirogov, F. I. Inozemtsev, A. M. Filo-mafitsky, G. I. Sokolsky, I. V. Varvinsky, etc. With medical f-volume activity of biologists of K. M. Ber, X is connected. I. Pandera, A. F. Middendorf, anatomists To. - Burdakh, Reykhert (K. V. Reichert), A. Rauber, A. W. Volkmann's physiologists, F. G. Bidder, H. M. Yakubovich, F. V. Ovsyannikov, A. F. Samoylov, chemists and druggists K. K. Claus, G. I. Hess, K. Schmidt, G. Bunge, G. J. N. Dragen-dorff, And. JI. Kondakov, pharmacologists R. Bukhgeym, O. Shmideberg, R. Kobert, D. M. Lavrov, Yu. K. Szymanowski's surgeons, E. Wal, H. N. Burdenko, I. I. Grekov, G. A. Reynberg, therapists of B. A. Manassein, V. M. Kerniga, N. I. Leporsky, B. Naunin, A. I. Yarotsky, microbiologists A. A. Vladimirov, N. F. Gamaley, M. M. Ekzemplyarsky, hygienists 3. G. Frenkel, G. V. Hlopin, A. F. Nikitina, S. V. Moiseyev, Kyustner's gynecologists (O. E. Kust-пег), A. P. Gubarev, E. Krepelin's psychiatrists, A. I. Yushchenko, etc. On medical f-those studied figures of the Estonian culture whether educate - democrat R. F. Felman and F. R. Kreytsvald, the philologist of B. I. Dahl, the writer V. V. Veresayev, the Latvian and Lithuanian revolutionaries (F. Rozin, K. Pozhela, etc.), V. I. Lenin's brother — D. I. Ulyanov. Pupils medical f-that were active participants of fight for the Soviet power, the first organizers of the Soviet health care and medical education in different federal republics. In 1918 on the basis of the evacuated part Of this year at. it was created Voronezh by un-t.

At the bourgeois power in Estonia (1919 — 1940) scales of training of doctors and druggists in un-those decreased, historically developed bonds medical f-that un-that with the Soviet scientific centers stopped. However number of his professors (neurosurgeon L. M. Puusepp, hygienist A. I. Rammul, pathologist A. Valdez, etc.) continued to cooperate with the Soviet scientists. Honourable doctors Of this year at. the Soviet scientists I. P. Pavlov and V. A. Afanasyev were elected. During the same period in un-those a number of departments — bacteriology, applied pharmacy, diseases of an oral cavity and teeth, etc. was created.

With recovery in 1940. The Soviet power wide perspectives of development medical f-that opened, the possibility of use of experience of higher educational institutions of sister federal republics appeared. In a crust, time of medical f-t consists from medical, pharmaceutical, dental (1945), sportivnomeditsinsky (1961) and pediatric departments (1967). On medical f-those 25 departments. In 1970 it was created by f-t of improvement and specialization of doctors and druggists; on Krom annually is engaged apprx. 400 listeners. The number of students in comparison with 1940 increased by medical f-those by 3 times, in a crust, their time apprx. 1,8 thousand. For the post-war period (1945 — 1983) on medical f-those the St. 6,8 thousand specialists was trained.

Professorsko - the teachers medical f-that increased from 78 (1945) to 212 people (1983), from them one corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, 2 full members and 3 corresponding members of AN of ESSR, 50 doctors of science and professors, 114 associate professors and candidates of science, 11 zasl. scientists of ESSR and a number zasl. doctors of ESSR. Seven groups of scientists f-that are winners of republican awards in science and technology.

At medical f-those were created the Central research laboratory (1962) and 4 problem laboratories: biochemistry of secretory processes (1967), psychopharmacology (1968), vascular surgery (1969) and molecular biology (1975). On the basis of these laboratories in 1979 at un-those the scientific research institute of the general and molecular pathology is created. The medical f-t has more powerfully a wedge, base (total number of beds of 2500). For improvement of work the wedge, departments is constructed a number of new hospital cases (surgical clinic, the cardiological center, pulmonary department, children's clinic) and old clinics are reconstructed. Annually at the initiative of medical f-that scientific conferences or symposiums are held and the considerable number of scientific works is issued: articles, monographs, textbooks and manuals. Scientists f-that developed a number of original scientific devices and techniques. A series of monographs in Estonian of «Scripta medicorum» is written generally scientific medical f-that. Scientific works on gastroenterology, psychopharmacology, obstetrics and gynecology, endocrinology, history of medicine, neurology, neurosurgery, etc. are regularly published in «Scientific notes Tartu state un-that». Broad development was got by scientific research on biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics, neurosurgery, cardiovascular surgery, psychiatry, pharmacology, gastroenterology, sports medicine, vascular pathology, etc. Scientific cooperation with scientific centers and medical in-ta of the sister republics of USSR, and also with high fur boots of GDR and Finland develops.

Tartu state in un-t it is awarded by awards of the Labour Red Banner (1967) and Friendship of the people (1982).

Bibliography: The biographic dictionary of professors and imperial Yuryevsky's teachers, the former Derptsky university, under the editorship of G. V. Levitsky, t. 2, Yuryev, 1903; History of the Tartu university, 1632 — 1982, under the editorship of. K. Sy-livask, page 57, etc., Tallinn, 1982; To and l yu P. I. Professorial institute at the Tartu (Derptsk) university, Owls. medical, No. 8, page 87, 1955; Martinson E. E. Historical links Tartu (. Yuryevsky) university with the Russian science, Tallinn, 1951; Medical faculty of the Tartu state university, under the editorship of L. Allikmets, etc., Tallinn, 1982; With and and r m and Yu. M. and Cara E. Yu. Development of psychiatry at the Tartu university, Tallinn, 1981.

L. X. Allikmets, V. V. Kalnin.