TANZANIA. The United Republic of Tanzania — the state in East Africa formed in 1964 as a result of association of Tanganyika (mainland) with the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba. The area is 945,1 thousand sq.km. Population of 17,5 million people (middle of 1981). The capital — Dar Es Salaam (870 thousand zhit., 1981). In the administrative relation is divided into 25 areas. Ofits. languages — Swahili and English.
T. — republic. The legislature belongs to the president and unicameral parliament — National assembly.
The head of state and executive power — the president. On Zanzibar and Pemba the supreme body of legislature — Council of representatives, executive power belongs to the Revolutionary Council of Zanzibar (RCZ); the president of an island part is at the same time the chairman of RSZ.
Most part of the territory of T. it is located on the East African plateau. There are several mountain chains; along the coast of the Indian Ocean the lowland, between it and a foot of a tableland — a strip of low plateaus lies. The climate is equatorial and monsoonal, hot, seasonal and wet.
T. — the developing agrarian country. 41,6% of a gross product are the share of agriculture, the St. 90% of the population (1980) are engaged in it. Primary branch of agriculture — crop production, the main cultures — sisal, a carnation (the first place in the world on export), a cotton, coffee, tea, nuts of cashew; for local consumption cultivate corn, millet, an ambercane, cassavas, bean. The industry generally mining (mine diamonds, gold, tin, sodium chloride, mica); cement, fabrics, fertilizers, oil products are produced.
Apprx. 98% of the population of the country make the African people belonging preferential to east to a bow. V T. there live also Indians, Pakistanis, Arabs. Average population density 18,5 people on 1 sq.km (1981).
In 1981 birth rate on 1 000 population made 47,0, the general mortality 15, a natural increase of the population 32; child mortality 101 on 1000 live-born. The average duration of the forthcoming life (1981) made 52 years.
The main place in structure of incidence in T. zanikhmat infectious and parasitic diseases. On the most part of the territory of Tanganyika malaria is endemic (preferential tropical); on the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba this disease is liquidated. Patients with malaria make 10 — 15% of number of all hospitalized. Besides, the African trypanosomiasis and an onchocercosis are endemic a schistosomatosis (urinogenital and intestinal). Cholera, a typhoid, dysentery (amoebic and bacillar), the infectious hepatitis, gonorrhea, tuberculosis, a leprosy, trachoma, measles, diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, whooping cough, diseases connected with insufficiency of food hypo - and avitaminosis, anemias are widespread.
According to WHO data (1975), the most common causes of death registered in 1972 in-tsakh by T., there were various forms of pneumonia (15,6% of total number of the dead), measles (10,5%), a gastroenteritis (9,6%), diseases of early children's age (6,9%), insufficiency of food (5,1%), various forms of tuberculosis (4,7%), tetanus (4,6%), heart troubles (4,5%), malaria (4,4%), anemia (3,8%). These data can be inexact since the sanitary statistics in the country is developed insufficiently; in the majority of districts of the country there is no obligatory registration of cases of the birth and death even.
The Ministry of Health bears responsibility for planning of health care, work of preventive services, training and the hospital help for what in its structure there are relevant divisions. The country is divided into medical and sanitary districts, in each of to-rykh health services the chief physician of the district directs.
In the country preferential development is provided to lay down. - the prof. of service of the villagers making St. 90% of the population. By 1985 — 1990 it is planned to have in each village rural point of health care.
In 1977 in the territory of Tanganyika there were 2407 medical institutions on 33 714 beds (2,1 beds on 1000 inhabitants), including 143 general-tsy on 21 thousand beds, 181 local or rural-tsa on 3938 beds, 2083 centers of health care on 8776 beds. On the lake of Zanzibar in 1967 there were 15 BCs on 875 beds (2,4 beds on 1000 inhabitants), including 4 general-tsy on 465 beds, 1 maternity home on 24 beds, 6 rural maternity homes on 38 beds, 1 psychiatric-tsa on 185 beds, 1 infectious — on 8 beds and 2 leper colonies on 155 beds. Vnebolnich-ny help is given in out-patient departments of BC, the centers of health care, and also doctors of a private practice. Name and content of work of healthcare institutions of T. not completely correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see Treatment and prevention facilities abroad).
In Tanganyika in 1977 727 doctors (0,61 for 10 000 population), 223 assistants to medical inspectors, 930 assistants to doctors, 5658 medical sisters midwifes, 1393 rural medics, 1400 auxiliary workers on protection of motherhood and the childhood worked. In 1975 in the country there were 28 dentists and 36 druggists. On the lake of Zanzibar in 1967 43 doctors (1,2 for 10 000 inhabitants), 2 dentists, 3 druggists, 25 midwifes, 217 nurses and their assistants worked.
Training of doctors is carried out on a medical f-takh un-that in Dar es Salaam and un-that Makerere in Uganda. In 1970 in T. there were 4 centers for training of assistants to doctors (a 3-year course), 5 centers for training of rural medics (a 3-year course) and other educational institutions for preparation of an average and support medical staff.
Bibliography: Health by the people, ed. by K. W. Newell, Geneva, 1975; Sixth report on the world health situation, 1973 — 1977, pt 2, p. 40, Geneva, 1980.
E. V. Galakhov.