Santiago's RAMON-I-CAJAL (Ramon y Cajal Santjago, 1852 — 1934) — the Spanish histologist, the Nobel Prize laureate (1906).
Ended in 1873 medical f-t un-that in Zaragoza. Worked as the doctor at Cuba. Since 1878 the manager. the anatomic museum in Zaragoza.
Headed departments of a comparative anatomy in Valencia (since 1883), normal and pathological histology in Barcelona (since 1887) and Madrid (since 1892). In 1900 founded laboratory of biological researches at Madrid un-those, later transformed to in-t of his name.
S. Ramone-and-Kakhal published apprx. 250 articles, a number of the monographs and managements devoted to hl. obr. to studying of a structure of a nervous system, and also questions of experimental pathology and microbiology. It described a structure of nervous cells, nerve terminations, gliotsig; allocated types of neurons in various areas of a cerebral cortex; gave the characteristic of the neural organization of a spinal cord and cerebellum at animals and the person; investigated a structure of a retina at vertebrata; in detail studied an embryonal histogenesis of nervous tissue; developed neyrogistol. techniques (see. Ramón-and-Kakhalya methods ). S. Ramone-and-Kakhal (1884) proved by one of the first the doctrine about neuron as morfol, unit of a nervous system (see. Neural theory). It connected improvement of a nervous system in an ontogeny with formation of new nervous shoots and especially with multiplication of bonds between neurons. The principle of dynamic polarization of neuron (1891) is established to them, according to Krom the irritation is carried out in the direction to an axon. S. Ramone-and-Kakhal was engaged also in studying of a problem of a degeneration and regeneration of nerves. He considered that regeneration of nerve fibrils happens at the expense of their central pieces and collaterals without participation of neurolemmocytes (schwannian cells); at the same time (see) it explained the phenomenon of a neurotropism with action of chemical factors. A Nobel Prize S. Ramone-and-Kakhal is conferred for a research of a structure of a nervous system (together with C. Golgi).
Horizontal neurons of a cerebral cortex, intermediate kernel of a mesencephalon called by his name.
Works S. Ramone-and-Kakhalya played a fundamental role in development of neurohistology. It created school of the Spanish neurohistologists.
S. Ramone-and-Kakhal was honourable doctor Kembridzhsky and Oxford high fur boots, and also many foreign scientific about-in and academies.
Works: Manual de anatomia patologica general, Barcelona, 1890; Die Retina der Wirbeltiere, Wiesbaden, 1894; Die Structur der Chias-ma opticum nebst einer allgemeinen Theorie der Kreuzung der Nerven, Lpz., 1899; Histologie du système nerveux de l’homme et des vertébrés, t. 1—2, P., 1909 — 1911; Recuerdos de mi vida, Madrid, 1923; Degeneration and régénération of the nervous system, L., 1928; Elementos de téchnica microgrâfica del sistema nerviosa, Madrid, 1933; Studies on the cerebral cortex (limbic structures), L., 1955.
Bibliography: Geymanovich A. I. Zhizn and ideas Ramón-and-Kakhala, Doctor, business, No. 6, page 367, 1946; Snesarev P. E. Santiago Ramone-and-Kakhal, Life and scientific activity, Owls. nevropatol., psi-hiat. and gigabyte., t. 1, century 12, page 711, 1932.
V. S. Speransky.