ShPRYTsY (German Spritze) — tools for the dosed introduction to body tissues of liquid pharmaceuticals, suctions of exudates and other liquids, and also for washing of cavities. The syringe represents the manual piston pump consisting of the cylinder, the piston and other fittings (the tab., fig. 1).
Highway close on a design to modern, appeared in the second half of 19 century when Pravats (Ch. G. Pravaz) in 1853 offered Sh. with the cylinder from rigid rubber and the piston from skin and asbestos, divisions were applied on a metal rod to-rogo. By the beginning of 20 century many designs of Sh. for injections, devices for transfusions and infusions, including the aspirators offered by A. A. Bobrov and N. V. Sklifosovsky, Poten's device (see Poten the device), etc. were created.
The main requirements imposed to Sh. — convenience and ease of a manipulation, the minimum fluid leakage in a gap between the piston and the cylinder and in the conjunction of Sh. with a needle or a cannula (tip). Admissible fluid leakage at injection syringes, according to requirements of GOST, shall not exceed 5% for Sh. with a capacity from 5 to 20 ml and 10% — for Sh. with a capacity of 1 — 2 ml.
Highway is distinguished to destination, on a design of the syringe, a tip and a cone, and also on materials, from to-rykh they are made.
III are most widespread. for injections; they are issued three main types: the «Record» syringe with the glass cylinder and a metal insert (the tab., fig. 1, 2, 3), the Lyuera syringe manufactured of glass (the tab., fig. 10) and the syringe from polymeric materials (polystyrene, polypropylene, etc.) one-time use (the tab., fig. 8). Besides, Sh. representing the combinations of these three types called by combined are issued. Call combined also Sh. with the glass piston and a metal tip (the tab., fig. 4 — 7). On an outer surface of the cylinder Sh. are put with indelible paint of division, as a rule, in shares of a milliliter. Scale interval of usual Sh. for injections of 0,1 — 1 ml, an insulin syringe — 0,05 ml (the tab. of of fig. 6); the last has the second scale in terms of effect of insulin with scale interval 2 IE. The most exact dosage is carried out by means of tuberkulinovy syringes (the tab., fig. 7), at to-rykh scale interval makes 0,02 ml.
The tip of the «Record» syringe connects to the cylinder by means of metal solder; at the nek-ry combined Sh. connection is carried out by means of sealing gaskets from silicone rubber; make a piston ring of it. Arrangement of a cone of a tip of III. can be concentric (on an axis) and excentric; the last arrangement is convenient for intradermal and subcutaneous injections.
For the purpose of increase in reliability and durability release folding Sh. with the reserve cylinder, face edges to-rogo for increase in durability slightly of an otbortovana and are melted off.
To injection and suction of significant amounts of liquid use the «Record» syringe of continuous action (the tab., fig. 9). having a spring on a piston rod and supplied with tees nozzles for injection and suction.
Highways for washing of cavities (the tab., fig. 11) differ from injection in the bigger capacity and existence of a ring on the end of a rod for a thumb. There is also Sh. for washings (the tab., fig. 12), in Krom diameter of the piston can be regulated by means of a special washer from silicone rubber. Regulation is carried out by a vvinchivaniye of a piston rod in a washer.
Release the special Sh. intended for administration of liquid in a throat (the tab., fig. 14), in a uterus (the tab., fig. 15), dental (the tab., fig. 17), for washing of a pulp cavity (the tab., fig. 18). They are, as a rule, supplied with removable tips or cannulas. III are intended for administration of contraceptives special. from plastic (the tab., fig. 13).
To special III. also Sh. for introduction rentgenokont-
rastny substances belong. At an angiography (see) apply Sh. with the fixer (the tab., fig. 19) to a needle or an adapter, and the cannula of a needle or an adapter has a screw thread. For a translumbar aor-■ tografiya use syringes of a similar design, but with the metal piston, the scale is applied on a rod to-rogo (the tab., fig. 16).
To administration of medicines and antidotes at the acute medical aid most and mutual assistance apply an unit-dose syringe (see), and to anesthesia in stomatology and to mass vaccination — needleless injektor (see Injektor needleless).
Highways after use clear and wash out. Large to lay down. - prof. of establishment are equipped with special cars for a sink of needles and and syringes.
Highways store in unassembled form in metal cases-sterili-jams (the tab., fig. 20) — small boilers, to-rye can be used for Sh.'s disinfection by boiling in a distilled water.
Sh.'s sterilization is carried out by boiling in the distilled or twice prokipyachenny water within 40 min. from the moment of boiling or a hot air in an air sterilizer at t ° 180 — 200 ° within 45 — 60 min. On cylinders Sh., for to-rykh sterilization at f 200 is admissible °, there is a mark «200 °» (see Sterilization).
For Sh.', ready to use, storage special containers (cases sterilizers) from metal serve in sterile conditions (the tab., fig. 21) or plastic (the tab., fig. 22), in to-rykh they together with needles are in alcohol. Highways of one-time use from polymeric materials are issued sterile in tight packaging.
MAIN TYPES of SYRINGES, CASES FOR SYRINGES AND THEIR CHARACTERISTIC
Syringes injection, for injections and washings
Note: in some drawings in a section connection of a tip with the cylinder, the device of the piston and the end of the cylinder is shown.
Bibliography: Nabatov Yu. F. Copper
tsinsky merchandizing, page 127, M., 1982; Nabatov Yu. F. and P. E's List distance. Medical merchandizing, page 190, M., 1984.
Yu. F. Kabatov.