From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SYRIA, the Syrian Arab Republic — the state in Southwest Asia on east coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The area is 185,2 thousand km 2 . Population of 10,4 million people (1981, assessment). The capital — Damascus (1,02 million zhit., 1981). In the administrative relation the country is divided into 14 governorships (governorate). Ofits. language — Arab.


The village — the republic. C1973 of works the constitution. The head of state — the president. The supreme legislative body — National council. Executive power is carried out by Council of ministers.

The village pursues progressive anti-imperialist policy, develops bonds and cooperation with the USSR and other socialist countries.

The most part of the territory of the country — the plateau which is going down from the West on the East. In the west of the country from the North on the South two chains of mountains, along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea — the narrow seaside lowland last. Climate subtropical Mediterranean type; on the coast climate sea, in vost. parts of the country — continental.

The basis of the economy of S. — agriculture, in Krom is occupied St. 50% of the amateur population. Apprx. 70% of acreage are busy under grain and leguminous crops; the main food crop — wheat, technical — a cotton, sugar beet, tobacco. On the Mediterranean coast gardening (apricots, a fig, a citrus) and vegetable growing is developed. The livestock production is developed, sheep breeding is preferential. In 1980 apprx. 70% of the industrial enterprises and St. 85% of cost of industrial output it was the share of public sector. Oil, phosphates are extracted. There is a textile and food industry. Long since there are domestic industries on production of products from copper, gold, silver, etc.

Apprx. 90% of the population — Arabs (Syrians), and the rest is made by Kurds, Armenians, Turks, cher-kessa, etc.

The main vital rates in 1979, according to incomplete data (for 1000 the population): birth rate 41,6, general mortality 5,1, natural increase * 36,5. Child mortality 12,6 for 1000 live-born (1976). The average duration of the forthcoming life (1970 — 1975) men — 54 years, at women have 57,4 years.

In the general structure of incidence also parasitic diseases prevail infectious. So, in 1977 3017 cases of cholera, 589 — a typhoid and a paratyphoid, 167 — an amebiasis, 1417 — a pulmonary tuberculosis, 467 — infectious hepatitis, 154 — malaria, 110 — a leushmaniosis, 61 — trachoma, 2047 — epidemic parotitis, 1492 — to a bark, 1057 — chicken pox, 351 — whooping cough, 249 — diphtheria, 146 — tetanus were registered. Besides, cases of a leprosy, a schistosomatosis, poliomyelitis, meningitis, rage, encephalitis and rubella are celebrated.

The main reasons for death — a disease of cardiovascular system (53,4 on 100 thousand zhit., 1978); infectious and parasitic diseases 16,1 mortality, from diseases of a respiratory organs 12,7, new growths 8,2, diseases went. - kish. a path 7,7, diseases of a nervous system 7,7, diseases of urinogenital system 4,5, accidents, poisonings, injuries 16,2 (on 100 thousand zhit., 1978).

Heads health service mines - in health care, to-rogo are under authority to lay down. - the prof. of establishment; a part of the BC which are educational base are subordinated min.-vu higher education. The central management of min.-va health care is subdivided into 10 departments which are performing management of preventive, medical, pharmaceutical activity, laboratory business, scientific research and carrying out planning of public health care.

Similar functions in each governorship are performed by directors of health services on places.

Fourth 5-year plan (1976 — 1980) in the country the coverage of all population was provided to lay down. - the prof. service. By the end of this period it was supposed to have 1 bed on 600 zhit.; the network of healthcare institutions completed with medical shots and evenly distributed over the country; gradual introduction of practice of insurance of health was planned.

In 1977 in S. there were 113 medical institutions on 8151 beds (10,2 beds on 10 thousand zhit.), including 35 state BCs on 6540 beds, noncommercial 3-tsy on 94 beds and 75 private BCs on 1517 beds. 27 BCs of the general type (4798 beds), 54 surgical (1363 beds), 23 maternity homes (420 beds), 3 tubercular-tsy (580 beds), 2 infectious (111 beds), 2 psychiatric (660 beds) * leper colony (209 beds) and from-rino laryngologic-tsa functioned (10 beds).

Extra hospital help (1976) was given by polyclinic departments of BC, 296 out-patient clinics and the centers of health care, and also doctors of a private practice. Children and pregnant women to lay down. - prof. receive the help in the centers of health protection of mother and child, the rural obstetric centers and points of health protection of school students. (The name and content of work of healthcare institutions of S. not completely correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR — see Treatment and prevention facilities abroad).

The page has a number of balneological resorts. The most known of them to El Jamma, or Haruan having numerous sources of chloride sulfide waters of an average mineralization and Palmyra with sources of thermal sulfide radon waters. Lech. factors of the resorts of Bukkene and Sukhne are the radon waters used for bathtubs, flourishes and drinking treatment; to lay down. factors of the resorts of Dumeyr and Ras Al Ain — the sulfide waters used for outside balneoprotsedur. Indications for treatment in the listed resorts: rheumatism, diseases of a peripheral nervous system, skin, female genital, disbolism. The resort of Sheyk Issah located in the north of the country has sources of hlo-ridno-sodium ferruterous waters, to-rye are used for treatment of patients with gout, with diseases went. - kish. a path, at obesity.

In 1977 in the country there were 3119 doctors (3,88 doctors on 10 thousand zhit.), 104 dentists, 1393 druggists, 180 assistants to the druggist, 1107 midwifes, 2056 nurses, 288 technicians-laboran-tov, 90 X-ray technicians, 120 technical-nicknames-anesthesiologists and 285 inspectors of health care.

Training of doctors (term of training of 6 years) is carried out on 3 medical f-takh, dentists (4 years) and druggists (4 years) — at 3 dental surgery and 3 pharmaceutical schools; nurses (3 years) — at 11 sisterly schools, midwifes (1 year) — at 3 obstetric schools. Besides, there are 4 schools for training of assistants to the nurse and school for training of technicians-laboratory assistants.

Bibliography: The sixth review of a condition of health care in the world of 1973 — 1977, the p. 2, page 461, Geneva, WHO, 1981; World health statistics annual 1980, v. 1, p. 37, Geneva, 1980; World health statistics annual 1980, Health personnel and hospital establishments, p. 6, 85, Geneva, 1980.

E. V. Galakhov.