SYNTHETIC RESINS — the high-molecular compounds received as a result of interaction of low-molecular substances (monomers). Villages of the village form a basis for receiving plasts, chemical fibers, synthetic resin adhesives, paints and varnishes, sealants etc. of S. pages widely apply in production of medical polymers, building materials, in radio electronics, mechanical engineering, in the light, chemical, furniture industry p etc.
S. pages depending on a way of receiving divide on polymerization (the poly(acrylic, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, etc.) and polpkondensatsionny S. page (phenolformaldehyde, mochevino-melamine formaldehyde, polyester, epoxy, furan, etc.). Polymerization of heterogeneous monomers with formation of so-called copolymers, napr, styrene with alpha methylstyrene, a nitrile acrylic to - you, methylmethacrylate is possible.
Release S. page in the form of blocks, granules, powders, viscous liquids.
Main types of the equipment for S.'s production of page are reactors, columns, mixers, centrifuges, dryers. Insufficiently perfect tekhnol. the equipment can be a source of release of dust, gases, vapors and aerosols of initial monomers, intermediate and auxiliary chemical substances and end products of production. Release of harmful substances in air of a working zone happens also in connection with intermittence tekhnol. process, lack of special devices for selection tekhnol. tests, irrational design of pumps etc.
In a process of manufacture and S.'s uses by the village professional vrednost are initial products (styrene, enikhlorgidrin, vinyl chloride), hardeners (hexamethyl endiamin, polietilenpoliamin, maleic and phthalic anhydrides), plasticizers (dibutyl phthalate), solvents (toluene, chlorinated hydrocarbons) and products of thermodestruction of S. of page at their heating to high temperatures.
To to professional vrednost by S.'s production of page also static electricity, high temperature of air and a caloradiance, noise belong (see). Separate operations are connected with considerable physical tension (loading and unloading of raw materials, cleaning of an inner surface of polymerization reactors manually, transitions on ladders) and neuroemotional pressure. Many operations on S.'s processing by the village are carried out in a forced pose standing, with tension of the visual analyzer.
The majority of the toxicants which are emitted in S.'s production of page possesses irritant action, causes changes in system of blood — anemia, a leukopenia, is more rare thrombocytopenia; nek-ry of them (styrene, vinyl chloride, dimethyl ether terephthalic to - you, dimethyl formamide, geksametnlendiamin, a nitrile acrylic to - you, etc.) can influence a nervous system, causing development of a neurangiosis (see. Dystonia vascular ), an asthenic syndrome (see). In initial stages of vascular dystonia symptoms of a hyperexcitability prevail, edges further can be replaced giporeaktivnostyo. Development of a vegetovascular polyneuritis under the influence of methylmethacrylate, solvents, ethers phthalic to - you etc. is possible. Are rather specific: a toxic angioneurosis (see. Angiotrofonezroza ), arising under the influence of vinyl chloride (see. Polyvinylchloride ); functional disturbances of a liver at intoxication styrene (see). The vascular and vegetative crises reminding diencephalic (see. Hypothalamic syndrome ), are possible at influence of diisocyanates in production of polyurethane pitches.
At contact with products of production of polystyrenes, feno-and aminiplastics and other pitches functional disturbances of a nervous system, parenchymatous bodies, systems of blood can develop.
Nek-rye S. of page, getting on skin, strike it (epoxy, phenolformaldehyde, etc.), and the flying products migrating from polymeric connections cause development of allergic diseases of a respiratory organs. Allergic activity of S. of page considerably is defined by availability in them of residual monomers.
Diseases of skin at contact with S. of page are more often caused by development of the hypersensitivity which is shown in the form of allergic dermatitis (see), eczemas (see), is more rare than toxidermias (see). After the termination of contact with S. of page and treatment these phenomena in 7 — 14 days disappear. Treatment of dermatitis is carried out by the general rules; at development of an allergodermatit the desensibilizing therapy in combination with topical treatment is shown. In diagnosis of the prof. of diseases of skin are of great importance skin tests (see) with industrial allergens, and also diagnosis of in vitro.
Methods of specific diagnosis of the prof. of allergoses are developed and are implemented into practice, the basic from to-rykh is the endonasal provocative test with chemical allergens. The most reliable diagnostic method of bronchial asthma of a chemical etiology is provocative inhalation test with specially picked up minimum concentration of water solutions of chemical allergen (formaldehyde — at contact with formaldehyde resins, epichlorohydrin — during the work with epoxies etc.). Methods specific immunol are developed. the diagnosis based on reaction antigen — an antibody (see. Antigen — an antibody reaction ).
The main stage of complex therapy of the prof. of the allergoses connected with S.'s production of page is the termination of contact with allergens and the irritating substances.
Preventive actions in S.'s production of page are directed to a gigabyte. standardization of content of free monomer and other volatile substances possessing high biol. activity; implementation of continuous techno of l. schemes with wide use of the modern automation equipment and mechanization of the main and auxiliary operations. Prohibition of use of the raw materials which do not have the approved GOST or «Technical specifications» is important; approval of bodies dignity. supervision of new ingredients of polymeric compositions. The equipment for drying, crushing, grind, sifting and mixing of the raising dust materials needs to be placed in the isolated rooms at the maximum reduction of ways of transportation of raw materials. Processes of loading of reactors the raising dust and flying raw materials, selection tekhnol. tests and unloading of hot polymer are provided with the devices interfering a heat - gazo-and to a parovydeleniye. The design molding, extrusion, vacuum cars and other equipment intended for the melted polymer shall exclude a possibility of infiltration of hot material and release of harmful substances in air of production rooms. Works with the epoxy and other liquid S. of page used in the form of glues (phenolformaldehyde, ureaformaldehyde, etc.), it is necessary to carry out with obligatory use of individual protection equipment (see. Gas masks , Respirators ), including protective gloves and pastes (see. Pastes protective ).
The persons working in contact with S. of page pass preliminary (at revenues to work) and periodic medical examinations, to-rye depending on the nature of harmful production factor are carried out 1 time in 12 or 24 months (see. Medical examination , Professional selection ).
Women from the moment of establishment of pregnancy shall be transferred to other work which is not connected with impact on an organism of production vrednost (the «Hygienic recommendations to rational employment of pregnant women» approved by M3 of the USSR).
See also Polymeric materials .
Bibliography: Alekseeva O. G. and D at e in a JI. A. Allergiya to industrial chemical compounds, M., 1978; Occupational health in chemical industry, under the editorship of 3. A. Volkova, etc., M., 1967; Professional allergoses, under the editorship of JI. I. Izrayleta, etc., Riga, 1976; Occupational diseases, under the editorship of A. A. Letavet, etc., M., 1973; The Reference book on occupational health, under the editorship of B. D. Karpov and V. E. Kovshilo, JI., 1979.
3. A. Volkova, T. B. Popov.