SYNOVIAL BAGS

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SYNOVIAL BAGS [bursae synoviales (PNA, JNA); bursae mucosae (BNA)] — the small cavities, the flattened form covered by a synovial membrane, delimited from surrounding fabrics by the capsule and filled with synovial fluid. Earlier allocated so-called mucous bags (bursae mucosae) represent S.'s kind of page.

S.'s studying by the village began apprx. 200 years ago. G. J. Duverney, P. Camper, A. Monro, S. Th. Soemmerring were engaged in them; from the Russian anatomists — E. O. Mukhin (who wrote the book «About Mokrotny Handbags» in 1815), N. I. Pirogov and

V. L. Gruber, to-rye confirmed a wide spread occurance of S. of page in an organism and explained their origin. B. Langenbek entered the term «sliding bags», proceeding from the fact that at the shift of skin, movement of sinews and S.'s muscles of page change the situation. Fents (E. Fenz, 1955) suggested to designate S.'s set of page as the sliding system, edges is located between active and passive parts of the motive device.

Anatomy

pages are formed by S. connecting fabric (see). Fabric elements of their capsule outside pass directly into surrounding fabrics, from within the capsule is covered with flat cells like sinoviotsit (see. Synovial membrane ). Connective tissue shoots of the capsule sometimes go in the form of plates to S.'s cavity of page, dividing them into a number of the cameras which are reported with each other; in this case multichamber bags (bursae synoviales multiloculares), unlike single-chamber, simple, by S. of page (bursae synoviales simplices) are formed.

Only the few S. of page arise during pre-natal development (they were found at fruits at the age of 7 months). S.'s most of page appears after the birth in connective tissue cracks as a result of functioning of muscles. In particular, hypodermic S. of page, as a rule, are not found in newborns; they are formed at youthful age, but reach full development in adults. Most often they are localized on places where skin is under the constant pressure or sliding (therefore elastic properties of hypodermic cellulose change) therefore their emergence is often connected with features of a profession. E.g., at the persons transferring weights on the head hypodermic S. pages are formed on a top of a calvaria, handicraftsmen-shoemakers — on a front surface have breasts. The pages acquired by S. meet also at exostoses, bone callosities, curvatures of a skeleton, on stumps after operations.

S.'s emergence of page between the rubbing parts provides isolation of these parts from each other. At the same time S.'s education by the village goes way of expansion of small cracks in cellulose and the subsequent their merge. It is promoted by not only friction and pressure, but also activity of muscles, to-rye cause a tension of fibers of the subject connecting fabric and their atrophy. In this regard S. of page form also in places of dissociation or isolation of a sinew and bone (e.g., sinews of a tricipital muscle of a shin and a calcaneus) where they replace the site of friable cellulose. With age the number C. of page usually increases, their sizes increase.

In normal conditions of S. of page represent the fallen-down pockets clamped between a sinew and a bone, or between skin and a fascia. They can be revealed by filling with special paints or X-ray contrast masses; at operation C. of page are differentiated thanks to density of their capsule. At pathology in case of accumulation in S. of page of a large amount of liquid they come to light easier. Usually the cavity of a bag contains the small volume of liquid. It or typical synovial fluid (see), or the liquid close to it on the chemical composition and physical properties. It has yellowish color, alkali reaction, is rather viscous. Emergence of such liquid in a bag is explained with function of the internal cellular vystilka having qualities of sec. of a retiruyushchy membrane. It is a layer of flat cells like sinoviotsit similar to cells of a vascular endothelium. The richness of vascular network near this layer and pressure, a cut is rendered on the capsule C. of page of a sinew and sheaf, cause release of synovial fluid in the necessary quantities. Assume that flat cells of a synovial layer can regenerate and be torn away in S.'s cavity of page.

Simple S. villages in a form remind a coin. Sometimes they take the oval or extended form depending on structures, between to-rymi are located. The size C. of page varies from 0,5 to 5 cm in the diameter.

Fig. 1. The diagrammatic representation of synovial bags in a joint: 1 — the synovial bag which is not reported with a joint cavity; 2 — a joint cavity; 3 — the synovial bag which is reported with a joint cavity.

S.'s ratio of page and joints happens two childbirth (fig. 1): one bags during all life remain the closed cavities, despite proximity to a joint, others are reported with the next joint cavities through openings of bigger or smaller size. Of the pages connected with a joint cavity it is necessary to distinguish torsions (eversiones) of a synovial membrane of joints from S.

On an arrangement hypodermic, nodfastsialny, subtendinous and axillary distinguish S. of page.

Hypodermic S. of page (bursae synoviales subcutaneae) - one - or multichamber cavities in hypodermic cellulose; meet on ledges of the joint ends of the bones which are exposed to sharp bending where the free movement of skin (e.g., in the field of an elbow shoot, in front from a patella and t is necessary. and.). They are observed also over the bone points which are the considerable pressure and friction (naira., over an akromion, outside from anklebones etc.).

Subfascial S. of page (bursae synoviales subfasciales) are identical to hypodermic. Subfascial prepatellar S. of page belongs to similar bags, e.g., Nek-ry researchers consider that subfascial S. of page are kinds of hypodermic bags.

Subtendinous S. of page (bursae synoviales subtenclineae) are, as a rule, reported with cavities of joints. Nek-rye S. the pages surrounding sinews at considerable distance become synovial vaginas of sinews (see. Synovial vaginas of sinews ).

Axillary S. of page (bursae synoviales submusculares), are located between a muscle and a bone, between muscles, in places of a prileganiye of muscles (sinews) to a joint bag.

Function C. of page consists in facilitating the movement of the rubbing surfaces and to reduce pressure upon fabrics therefore subtendinous S. page are the most constant. Thanks to S.'s presence by the village, walls to-rykh are moistened with synovial fluid, muscle work becomes more effective, their efficiency increases. Villages of the village carry to the auxiliary device of muscles and joints. Examples of their transformation to the joint capsule are known (e.g., a joint of a pea-shaped bone). Because of similarity in structure patol. processes in S. of page can proceed to similarly corresponding diseases of the joint capsule.

Pathology

the Closed S.'s injury of page can be followed by hemorrhage in a bag with formation of limited hematomas (see) in the form of a painful swelling. The diagnosis is confirmed by anamnestic data (emergence of a swelling right after an injury) and a puncture. Treatment: a puncture and the maximum removal of the streamed blood (in the presence of clots — washing using hemolitic means, introduction of antibiotics according to indications), and then imposing of a compressing bandage, an immobilization of an extremity a plaster longetka, and at a considerable hematoma — a circular bandage with the subsequent physical therapy and LFK. Open damages of S. of page are followed by the expiration from them synovial fluid and damage of surrounding fabrics. Treatment — page, operational up to removal of the damaged S.

The most frequent disease of S. of page is acute or their chronic inflammation (see. Bursitis ). It can be aseptic and infectious, including specific (tubercular, gonorrheal, etc.).

At nonspecific process depending on character of the formed exudate distinguish a serous, serofibrinous and purulent inflammation (see. Synovitis ). In most cases the pages which are superficially located S. in elbow, knee and humeral joints at persons of certain professions (miners, engravers, floor polishers, parquet floor layers, athletes, etc.), and also at the persons carrying prostheses on the extremities suffering from a curvature of fingers inflame (see. Hallux valgus ) and calcaneal spurs (see. Spurs bone ), at to-rykh these bags are exposed to constant traumatization. At development of primary acute inflammation or accession of a purulent infection to hron. to inflammatory process there is sharply painful, intense swelling, skin over a cut reddens. Function of a joint is broken. Transition of an inflammation to a joint (as well as in the opposite direction), especially in the presence of the message between S. page and a joint cavity is possible (see. Arthritises ). At the same time the indisposition is noted, body temperature increases. The «rice little bodies» bags which are formed in a cavity at a superficial arrangement of S. of page can be palpated in the form of mobile foreign bodys. At hron. S.'s inflammation of page moderately painful swelling of a myagkoelastichesky consistence, fluctuating is observed rounded shape. Function of a joint is usually not broken. The isolated accumulation of serous and mucous or serofibrinous liquid in a bag can remain a long time (see. Hygroma ).

Most often hron. S.'s inflammation of page is connected with certain professions and has aseptic character.

At a tubercular inflammation of joints (see. Tuberculosis extra pulmonary, tuberculosis of bones and joints ) more often the pages which are deeply located S. are surprised; in them serofibrinous exudate accumulates, to-ry can turn into curdled and purulent; at the same time are formed it is long not healing fistulas (see). Gonorrheal defeat of S. of page is characterized by the expressed acute inflammatory phenomena not only in actually capsule, but also surrounding fabrics.

Diagnosis of inflammatory diseases With, page is based on data of the anamnesis, a puncture of a cavity of a bag with tsitol. and bacterial. a research of the received exudate, and specific serological tests. Can be important rentgenol. a research of the struck area with introduction to a bag of X-ray contrast liquid, and also artrografiya (see) and an arthroscopy (see. Joints ).

Treatment of inflammations of S. of page is carried out depending on a wedge, by currents of a bursitis and a species of the microflora which caused an inflammation. Topical treatment of acute and subacute nonspecific process is begun in most cases with conservative actions: rest of an extremity, repeated punctures of S. of page a thick needle with aspiration of contents and introduction of a hydrocortisone, imposing of a compressing bandage, an immobilization of an extremity, physical therapy. It can be effective and - a roentgenotherapy. Antibacterial therapy is carried out, as a rule, only in the presence of a purulent infection. At a purulent bursitis apply repeated punctures of S. of page with aspiration of pus and washing of a bag solutions of antiseptic agents, and at inefficiency — drainage (see) bags, through side cuts, sometimes — with active aspiration of exudate (see. Aspiration drainage ).

At hron. an aseptic professional bursitis conservative treatment (an immobilization, repeated punctures with introduction of a hydrocortisone, sclerosing substances, etc.) can be successful only at long release from work or change of a profession. In these cases the most reasonablly radical excision of all S. of page through side or scrappy cuts, I do not leave -' shchy hems on a working surface of an extremity.

At a specific inflammation of S. of page treatment of a basic disease is carried out; the struck bags in most cases exsect.

S.'s tumors of page can be high-quality (giant-cell synoviomas) and malignant (synovial sarcomas). The main method of treatment of tumors of S. of page — operational removal them (see. Synovioma ). It is necessary to consider that oncological, as well as inflammatory, S.'s diseases of page which are reported with joints can be caused by a disease actually of joints.

The LIST of SYNOVIAL BAGS

the List of names is provided in alphabetical order on PNA, JNA, BNA; it included also nek-ry terms entering the PNA lists which are periodically revised on the international congresses of anatomists and the nek-ry outdated names which are found, however, in the writer. The generic name of «bursa» at the names provided by a bold-face type is lowered.

Fig. 2 — 16. The diagrammatic representation of synovial bags in various anatomic areas. Fig. 2. Area of the left shoulder joint, back view: 1 — bursa m. coracobrachiaiis; 2 — the capsule of a shoulder joint; 3 — bursa subtendinea m. subscapularis; 4 — bursa subtendinea m. teretis majoris; 5 — bursa subtendinea m. latissimi dorsi; 6 — bursa subacromialis; 7 — bursa subcutanea acromialis.
Fig. 3. Area of the right shoulder joint, an anterior aspect (infrascapular muscles are naked, the sinew of the broadest muscle of a back is crossed): 1 — bursa subacromialis; 2 — bursa subtendinea m. subscapularis; 3 — bursa subtendinea m. latissimi dorsi; 4 — bursa subdeltoidea.
Fig. 4. Area of the right shoulder joint, the back view (supraspinal and podostny muscles are partially removed, the awn of a shovel is resected): the arrow specified bursa subtendinea m. infraspinati.
Fig. 5. Area of the left shoulder joint, anterior aspect: 1 — bursa subacromialis; 2 — bursa subtendinea m. teretis majoris; 3 — bursa subtendinea m. latissimi dorsi; 4 — bursa subtendinea m. subscapularis.
Fig. 6. Area of the right elbow joint, the back view (skin and hypodermic cellulose are removed): the arrow specified bursa subcutanea olecrani.
Fig. 7. Area of the right elbow joint, an anterior aspect (the kosha, hypodermic cellulose and a fascia are removed): 1 — bursa cubitalis interossea; 2 — bursa bicipitoradialis.
Fig. 8. The right inguinal area (skin, hypodermic cellulose and a fascia are removed): 1 — bursa iliopectinea; 2 — bursa subtendinea iliaca.
Fig. 9. Area of the right hip joint, the back view (soft tissues are removed to muscles, gluteuses are crossed): 1 — bursa m. piriformis; 2 — bursa trochanterica m. glutei medii; 3 — bursa trochanterica m. glutei maximi; 4 — bursa intermuscularis mm. gluteorum; 5 — bursa m. bicipitis femoris sup.; in — bursa ischiadica m. glutei maximi; 7 — bursa ischiadica m. obturatopis int.; 8 — bursa subtendinea m. obturatoris int.
Fig. 10. Area of the right knee joint, an anterior aspect (skin and hypodermic cellulose are removed): 1 — bursa subcutanea prepatellaris; 2 — bursae subcutaneae tuberositatis tibiae.
Fig. 11. Area of the right knee joint, an anterior aspect (soft tissues are removed to the joint capsule, a sinew and a ligament of a patella are crossed by the four-head of a muscle of a hip): 1 — bursa suprapatellaris; 2 and 7 — the capsule of a joint; 3 — bursa anserina; 4 — bursa subtendinea m. sartorii; 5 — bursa subcutanea tuberositatis tibiae; 6 — bursa infrapatellaris profunda.
Fig. 12. Area of the right knee joint, the back view (skin, hypodermic cellulose and muscles are removed): 1 — bursa subtendinea m. gastrocnemii lat.; 2 — bursa subtendinea m. bicipitis femoris inf.; 3 — bursa subtendinea m. gastrocnemii med.; 4 — bursa m. semimembranosi.
Fig. 13. Sagittal cut of a knee joint: 1 — bursa suprapatellaris; 2 — bursa subtendinea prepatellaris; 3 — bursa subfascialis prepatellaris; 4 — bursa subcutanea prepatellaris; 5 — bursa subcutanea infrapatellaris; 6 — bursa infrapatellaris profunda; 7 — recessus subpopliteus; 8 — capsula articularis genus.
Fig. 14. Area of the right foot and ankle joint, outer surface: the arrow specified bursa subcutanea malleoli lat.
Fig. 15. Sagittal cut of foot and distal part of a shin: 1 — bursa subcutanea calcanea; 2 — bursa tendinis calcanei.
Fig. 16. Dorsum of the right foot: the arrow specified bursa subtendinea m. tibialis ant.

1. Anconeus, an elbow bag, see Intratendinea olecrani.

2. Anserina (PNA, JNA, BNA), bag of a goose pad; synonym of b. anserina cruris. It is located between sinews of thin, sartorial, poluyeukhozhilny muscles on the one hand and a medial condyle of a tibial bone in the field of an attachment of a tibial collateral sheaf — about other (fig. 11, 3).

3. Anserina cruris, a bag of a goose pad of a shin, see Anserina.

4. Bicipitogastrocnemialis (JNA, BNA), two-headed and sural bag. Small, meets changeably. It is located between a sinew of a biceps of a hip and a lateral head of a gastrocnemius muscle.

5. Bicipitoradialis (PNA, JNA, BNA), two-headed and beam bag. It is located between a sinew of a biceps of a shoulder and the forefront of tuberosity of a beam bone (fig. 7, 2).

6. Capitis tibialis musculi gastrocnemii, a bag of a tibial head of a gastrocnemius muscle, see Subtendinea musculi gast-rocnemii medialis.

7. Coccygea (BNA), synonym of b. coccygica (JNA), coccygeal bag. It is located in interfascial cellulose; non-constant, insignificant size.

8. Coccygica, a coccygeal bag, see, Coccygea.

9. Cubitalis interossea (PNA, BNA), interosseous elbow bag; synonym of b. cubiti interossea (JNA). It is located between the sinew of a biceps of a shoulder and muscles covering in front the proximal end of an ulna (fig. 7, 1). Small and non-constant bag.

10. Cubiti interossea, an interosseous bag of an elbow, see Cubitalis interossea.

11. Gluteofemorales, buttock and femoral bags, see Intermusculares gluteorum.

12. Iliaca subtendinea, an ileal subtendinous bag, see Subtendinea iliaca.

13. Iliopectinea (PNA, JNA, BNA), ileal and edge bag; synonym of b. m. psoatis majoris. It is located in a hollow between a front ileal awn and an ileal and pubic eminence in front from a hip joint. It is covered with a sinew of a big lumbar muscle (fig. 8, 1). At adults to 20% of cases it is reported with a cavity of a hip joint.

14. Infrahyoidea (PNA), podpodjyazych-ny bag; synonym: b. m. sternohyoidei (JNA, BNA). It is located between a grudinopodjyazychny muscle and a hypoglossal bone, to a cut this muscle is attached.

15. Ini'rapatellaris profunda (PNA, JNA, BNA), deep subpatellar bag. It is located between a sinew the four-head of a muscle of a hip and a tibial bone at the level of its tuberosity (fig. And, 6 and 13, 6). As a rule, it is reported with a cavity of a knee joint.

16. Infrapatellaris subcutanea, a subpatellar hypodermic bag, see Subcutanea infrapatellaris.

17. Infrapatellaris superficialis, a subpatellar superficial bag, see Subcutanea infrapatellaris.

18. Intermusculares musculorum gluteorum (PNA), intermuscular bags of gluteuses; synonym of bb. glutaeofemorales (JNA, BNA). Usually meet between big and average gluteuses, sometimes between big buttock and adductors of a hip is lower than the level of a big spit (fig. 9, 4). Differ in inconstancy of localization and insignificant size.

19. Intratendinea olecrani (PNA, JNA, BNA), elbow intra tendinous bag; synonym of b. anconeus. Is between a sinew of a tricipital muscle of a shoulder and an elbow muscle.

20. Ischiadica musculi glutei maximi (PNA), sciatic bag of a big gluteus; synonym of b. ischiadica m. glutaei maximi (JNA, BNA). It is located between a sciatic hillock and a big gluteus (fig. 9, 6).

21. Ischiadica musculi glutaei maximi, a sciatic bag of a big gluteus, see Ischiadica musculi glutei maximi.

22. Ischiadica m. obturatorii interni (PNA, BNA), sciatic bag of an internal locking muscle; synonym of b. m. obtu-ratoris interni (JNA). It is located between a tendinous part of an internal locking muscle and bone edge of a small sciatic opening, through a cut the muscle passes (fig. 9, 7). Prevents friction of a sinew about a bone.

23. Musculi bicipitis femoris distatis, a distal bag of a biceps of a hip, see Subtendinea musculi bicipitis femoris inferior.

24. Musculi bicipitis femoris inferior, the lower bag of a biceps of a hip, see Subtendinea musculi bicipitis femoris inferior.

25. Musculi bicipitis femoris proxima-lis, a proximal bag of a biceps of a hip, see Musculi bicipitis femoris superior.

26. Musculi bicipitis femoris superior (PNA, BNA), upper bag of a biceps of a hip; synonym of b. m. bicipitis femoris proximalis (JNA). It is located between a sinew of a long head of a biceps of a hip and a sinew of a semimembranous muscle near a sciatic hillock (fig. 9, 5).

27. Musculi coracobrachialis (PNA, JNA, BNA), bag of a coronoid and humeral muscle. Is at the beginning of the muscle (fig. 2, 1) of the same name. Rather small.

28. Musculi extensoris carpi radial is brevis (PNA, JNA, BNA), bag of a short beam razgibatel of a wrist. It is located between a tendinous attachment of the called muscle and the basis of the third metacarpal bone. Under the same name the synovial bag located between the tendinous beginning korotkogr a beam razgibatel of a brush and a ring ligament of a beam bone in an elbow joint sometimes appears.

29. Musculi flexoris carpi radialis (BNA), bag of a beam sgibatel of a wrist; synonym of Vagina synovialis tendinis m. flexoris carpi radialis (PNA, JNA). It is located between a sinew of a muscle and the basis II and III metacarpal bones.

30. Musculi flexoris carpi ulnaris (BNA), bag of an elbow sgibatel of a wrist. It is located in the place of an attachment of a muscle to a pea-shaped bone of a wrist.

31. Musculi gastrocnemii lateralis, a lateral bag of a gastrocnemius muscle, see Subtendinea musculi gastrocnemii lateralis.

32. Musculi gastrocnemii medialis, a medial bag of a gastrocnemius muscle, see Subtendinea musculi gastrocnemii medialis.

33. Musculi infraspinati, a bag podost-ache muscles, see Subtendinea musculi infraspinati.

34. Musculi latissimi dorsi, a bag of the broadest muscle of a back, see Subtendinea musculi latissimi dorsi.

35. Musculi obturatorii interni, a bag of an internal locking muscle, * see Ischiadica musculi obturatorii interni.

36. Musculi obturatoris interni, a bag of an internal locking muscle, see Ischiadica musculi obturatorii interni.

37. Musculi pectinei (JNA, BNA), bag of an edge muscle. It is located at the place of an attachment of a muscle to the rough line under a trochantin of a femur. Meets seldom.

38. Musculi piriformis (PNA, JNA, BNA), bag of a pear-shaped muscle. It is located between a femur (in the field of a big spit) and a sinew of a pear-shaped muscle (fig. 9, 1).

39. Musculi poplitei, a bag of a subnodal muscle, see Recessus subpopliteus.

40. Musculi psoatis majoris, a bag of a big lumbar muscle, see Iliopectinea.

41. Musculi quadricipitis femoris, a bag the four-head of a muscle of a hip, see Sup-rapatellaris.

42. Musculi sartorii propria, own bag of a sartorial muscle, see Subtendinea musculi sartorii.

43. Musculi semimembranaeei fibularis, a fibular bag of a semimembranous muscle, see Musculi semimembranosi.

44. Musculi semimembranosi (PNA, BNA), bag of a semimembranous muscle; synonym of b. m. semimembranaeei fibularis (JNA). It is located between a sinew of a muscle and the distal end of a tibial collateral sheaf (fig. 12, 4). In one third of cases it is reported with a cavity of a knee joint.

45. Musculi sternohyoidei, a bag of a grudinopodjyazychny muscle, see Infrahyoidea.

46. Musculi subscapularis, a bag of an infrascapular muscle, see Subtendinea musculi subscapularis.

47. Musculi teretis majoris, a bag of a big round muscle, see Subtendinea miis-culi teretis majoris.

48. Praepatellaris subaponeurotiea, a pre-patellar subgaleal bag, see Subtendinea prepatellaris.

49. Praepatellaris subcutanea, a prednad-kolennikovy hypodermic bag, see Subcutanea prepatellaris.

50. Praepatellaris subfascial is, a prednad-kolennikovy subfascial bag, see Subfascialis prepatellaris.

51. Praepatellaris subtendinea, prednad-kolennikovy поДсухоя^ильная a bag, see Subtendinea prepatellaris.

52. Recessus subpopliteus (PNA), subnodal deepening or subnodal pocket; synonym of b. m. poplitei (JNA, BNA). Protrusion of a bag of a knee joint of a kzada, to a subnodal muscle (fig. 13, 7). Differs in constancy and considerable size.

53. Retrohyoidea (PNA), pozadipod-lingual bag. It is located between a body of a hypoglossal kbeta and a shchitopodjyazychny membrane.

54. Sinus tarsi (JNA, BNA), bag of a tarsal sinus. It is located between ligaments and sinews near interosseous deepening (sine) on a dorsum of foot. Non-constant, small sizes.

55. Subacromial is (PNA, JNA, BNA), subacromial bag. It is located between akromiony and a sinew of a supraspinal muscle (fig. 3, 1 and 5, 1). Extends distally under a deltoid muscle and over a big hillock of a humeral bone. Facilitates sliding of the last of rather lower surface of a humeral shoot during assignment of a shoulder. Performs function of an accessory joint cavity.

56. Subcutanea acromialis (PNA, JNA, BNA), acromial hypodermic bag. It is located between skin and akromiony (fig. 2, 7). Varies in sizes and localization.

57. Subcutanea calcanea (PNA, JNA, BNA), hypodermic calcaneal bag. It is located in space between an Achilles (calcaneal) sinew and skin (fig. 15, 1).

58. Subcutanea epicondyli humeri ra-dialis (JNA), hypodermic bag of a lateral epicondyle of a shoulder; synonym of b. subcutanea epicondyli lateralis (BNA). Meets (changeably) under skin over the acting lateral epicondyle of a humeral bone.

59. Subcutanea epicondyli humeri ulnaris (JNA), hypodermic bag of a medial epicondyle of a shoulder; synonym of b. subcutanea epicondyli medialis (BNA^. Meets (changeably) under skin over the acting medial epicondyle of a humeral bone.

60. Subcutanea epicondyli lateralis, a hypodermic bag of a lateral epicondyle, see Subcutanea epicondyli humeri radialis.

61. Subcutanea epicondyli medialis, a hypodermic bag of a medial epicondyle, see Subcutanea epicondyli humeri ulna-ris.

62. Subcutanea infrapatellaris (PNA), hypodermic subpatellar bag; synonym of b. infrapatellaris subcutanea (JNA, BNA), b. infrapatellaris superficialis. Is below a patella between skin and a sinew the four-head of a muscle of a hip (fig. 13, 5). It is usually well-marked, it is not reported with a cavity of a knee joint.

63. Subcutanea malleoli fibulae, a hypodermic bag of an anklebone of a fibular bone, see Subcutanea malleoli lateralis.

64. Subcutanea malleoli lateralis (PNA, BNA), hypodermic bag of a lateral anklebone; synonym of b. subcutanea malleoli fibulae (JNA). Is between skin and a lateral anklebone (fig. 14).

65. Subcutanea malleoli medialis (PNA, BNA), hypodermic bag of a medial anklebone; synonym of b. subcutanea malleoli tibiae (JNA). It is located between skin and a medial anklebone.

66. Subcutanea malleoli tibiae, a hypodermic bag of a tibial bone, see Subcutanea malleoli medialis.

67. Subcutaneae metacarpophalangeae dorsales (BNA), hypodermic back metacarpophalangeal bags; synonym of bb. subcutaneae metacarpophalangicae dorsales (JNA). Are located between skin of a back of the hand and heads of metacarpal bones.

68. Subcutaneae metacarpophalangicae dorsales, hypodermic back metacarpophalangeal bags, see Subcutaneae metacarpophalangeae dorsales.

69. Subcutanea olecrani (PNA, JNA, BNA), elbow hypodermic bag. It is located between skin and an elbow shoot (fig. 6). Constant; shift it towards a medial or lateral epicondyle of a humeral bone is sometimes observed. It is quite often divided into cameras.

70. Subcutanea prepateilaris (PNA), hypodermic prepatellar bag; synonym of b. praepatellaris subcutanea (JNA, BNA). It is located between skin and a patella (fig. 10, 1 and 13, 4). Differs in constancy and sometimes considerable size.

71. Subcutanea tuberositatis tibiae (PNA, JNA, BNA), hypodermic bag of tuberosity tibial koyetn. It is located between skin and a bone. One of most distally the located bags of a knee joint (fig. 10, 2 and 11.5).

72. Subdeltoidea (PNA, JNA, BNA), subdeltoid bag (fig. 3, 4). Is as if continuation of b. subacromia-1 is. Reaches considerable size. In 10% of cases it is reported with a cavity of a shoulder joint. Division of this bag into several small cameras is observed. Arises in the pre-natal period before other bags.

73. Subfascialis prepateilaris (PNA), podfayetsialny prepatellar bag; synonym of b. praepatellaris subfascialis (JNA, BNA). It is located between a patella and a sinew the four-head of a muscle of a hip behind and a wide fascia of a hip in the field of a knee joint in front (fig. 13, 3). Practically it is difficult to separate this bag from b. subcutanea prepateilaris.

74. Subtendinea iliaca (PNA), subtendinous ileal (or podvzdoshnovertelny) bag; synonym of b. iliaca subtendinea (JNA, BNA). Is between a trochantin of a femur and a sinew of an iliolumbar muscle (fig. 8, 2).

75. Subtendinea musculi bicipitis femoris inferior (PNA), lower subtendinous bag of a biceps of a hip; synonym of b. m. bicipitis femoris inferior (BNA), b. m. bicipitis femoris distalis (JNA). It is located between a sinew of a biceps of a hip and a collateral fibular ligament, sideways from a knee joint (fig. 12, 2).

76. Subtendinea musculi gastrocnemii lateralis (PNA), lateral subtendinous bag of a gastrocnemius muscle; synonym of b. t. gastrocnemii lateralis (BNA). It is located between a lateral head of a gastrocnemius muscle and an ectocondyle of a hip (fig. 12, 1). It is reported with a cavity of a knee joint.

77. Subtendinea musculi gastrocnemii medialis (PNA), medial subtendinous bag of a gastrocnemius muscle; synonym of b. t. gastrocnemii medialis (BNA), b. capitis tibialis m. gastrocnemii (JNA). It is located between a medial head of a gastrocnemius muscle and a medial condyle of a hip (fig. 12, 3). It is sometimes reported with a cavity of a knee joint, and also with b. m. semimembranosi.

78. Subtendinea musculi infraspinati (PNA), podeukhozhilny bag of a podostny muscle; synonym of b. m. infraspinati (JNA, BNA). It is located in the place of an attachment of a podostny muscle to a big hillock of a humeral bone between a tendinous part of a muscle and the capsule of a shoulder joint (fig. 4).

79. Subtendinea musculi latissimi dorsi (PNA), podeukhozhilny bag of the broadest muscle of a back; synonym of b. m. latissimi dorsi (JNA, BNA). It is located between a flat sinew of the broadest muscle of a back and a humeral bone in the field of a crest of a small hillock, the muscle is attached to Krom (fig. 2, 5, 3, 3 and 5, 3).

80. Subtendinea musculi obturatorii interni (PNA), podeukhozhilny bag of an internal locking muscle. It is located under a sinew of an internal locking muscle at the place of its attachment to a trochanterian pole (fig. 9, 8).

81. Subtendineae musculi sartorii (PNA), subtendinous bags of a sartorial muscle; synonym of b. m. sartorii propria (JNA, BNA). Are located between a sinew of a sartorial muscle and tendinous attachments of thin and semitendinous muscles (fig. 11, 4). Are reported with anserina.

82. Subtendinea musculi subscapularis (PNA), podeukhozhilny bag of an infrascapular muscle; synonym of b. m. subscapularis (BNA), b. tendinis m. subscapularis (JNA). It is located at the place of an attachment of an infrascapular muscle to a small hillock of a humeral bone (fig. 2, 3, 3, 2 and 5, 4). It is reported with a cavity of a shoulder joint.

83. Subtendinea musculi teretis majoris (PNA), subtendinous bag of a big round muscle; synonym of b. m. teretis majoris (JNA, BNA). It is located at the place of an attachment of a big round muscle to a small hillock of a humeral bone (fig. 2, 4 and 5, 2).

84. Subtendinea musculi tibialis anterioris (PNA, JNA, BNA), podeukhozhilny bag of a front tibial muscle. It is located under a sinew of a front tibial muscle at the place of its attachment to medial wedge-shaped and to the basis of the I plusnevy bone (fig. 16).

85. Subtendinea musculi tibialis posterioris (JNA, BNA), podeukhozhilny bag of a back tibial muscle. It is located under a sinew of a muscle on site of its attachment to the I wedge-shaped and to the I plusnevy to bones.

86. Subtendinea musculi tricipitis brachii (PNA), podeukhozhilny bag of a tricipital muscle of a shoulder; synonym of b. subtendinea olecrani (JNA, BNA). It is located between an elbow shoot and a sinew of a muscle immediately over the level of its attachment.

87. To Subtendinea olecrani, podshozhil-ny muscle of an elbow shoot, see Subtendinea musculi tricipitis brachii.

88. Subtendinea prepateilaris (PNA), podeukhozhilny prepatellar bag; synonym of b. praepatellaris subtendinea (BNA), b. praepatellaris subaponeurotica (JNA). Sometimes meets between a periosteum of a patella of ii the tendinous plate covering a patella (fig. 13, 2).

89. Suprapatellaris (PNA, JNA, BNA), nadnadkolennikovy bag; synonym of b. m. quadricipitis femoris. Occupies rather wide space between condyles of a hip from sides and a sinew the four-head of a muscle is higher than a patella in front of (fig. And, 1 and 13, 1). At adults it is always reported with a cavity of a knee joint and actually is its torsion. At children can be isolated from a joint cavity.

90. Tendinis calcanei (Achillis, PNA, BNA), bag of heelstring; synonym of b. tendinis m. tricipitis surae (JNA). Is between a back surface of a calcaneal hillock and the sinew of a tricipital muscle of a shin (fig. 15, 2) which is attached here.

91. Tendinis musculi subscapularis, a bag of a sinew of an infrascapular muscle, see Subtendinea musculi subscapularis.

92. Tendinis musculi tricipitis surae, a bag of a sinew of a tricipital muscle of a shin, see Tendinis calcanei (Achillis).

93. Trochanterica musculi glutaei maximi, a trochanterian bag of a big gluteus, see Trochanterica musculi glutei maximi.

94. Trochanterica m. glutei maximi (PNA), trochanterian bag of a big gluteus; synonym of b. trochanterica subfascialis (JNA), b. trochanterica m. glutaei maximi (BNA). It is located outside from - a big spit of a femur between it and the aponeurosis of a big gluteus covering a spit (fig. 9,5). Quite large bag.

95. Trochantericae musculi glutei medii (PNA), trochanterian bags of an average gluteus. Distinguish two bags — front or superficial [trochanterica m. glutei medii anterior (PNA), trochanterica m. glutaei medii superficialis (JNA)] and back or deep [trochanterica m. glutaei medii posterior (BNA), trochanterica m. glutaei medii profunda (JNA)]. Both bags are placed on the upper edge of a big spit where the average buttock m'yshtsa (fig. 9, 2) is attached.

96. Trochanterica musculi glufei medii anterior, a front trochanterian bag of an average gluteus, see Trochantericae musculi glutei medii.

97. Trochanterica musculi glutaei medii posterior, a back trochanterian bag of an average gluteus, see Trochantericae musculi glutei medii.

98. Trochanterica musculi glutaei medii profunda, a deep trochanterian bag of an average gluteus, see Trochantericae musculi glutei medii.

99. Trochanterica musculi glutaei medii superficialis, a superficial trochanterian bag of an average gluteus, see Trochantericae musculi glutei medii.

100. Trochanterica musculi glutei minimi (PNA), trochanterian bag of a small gluteus; synonym of b. trochanterica m. glutaei minimi (JNA, BNA). It is located between a sinew of this muscle and a first line of a big spit.

101. Trochanterica musculi glutaei minimi, a trochanterian bag of a small gluteus, see Trochanterica musculi glutei minimi.

102. Trochanterica subcutanea (PNA, JNA, BNA), trochanterian hypodermic bag. Is between skin and a big spit of a femur.

103. Trochaiiterica subfascialis, a trochanterian subfascial bag, see Trochante-rica musculi glutei maximi.

104. Vagina synovialis tendinis musculi flexoris carpi radialis, a synovial vagina of a sinew of a beam sgibatel of a wrist, see Musculi flexoris carpi radialis.



Bibliography: Baron M. A. Reactive structures of internal covers, page 201, JI., 1949; Katz V. A. Questions of electronic and microscopic diagnosis of synovial tumors of the person, Arkh. patol., t. 43, No. 2, page 27, 1981; To N y sh I. T., Thorny K. S. and Borisyuk B. E. Synovial sarcoma, Kiev, 1975, bibliogr.; M and N of L. A. N at-to I venous stagnation and a condition of a microcirculator bed in synovial membranes, Bulletin ekspery. biol. and medical, t. 81, No. 4, page 499, 1976; Pavlova V. N. Synovial environment of joints, M., 1980; Hammerman D., In and of 1 a n d P. a. J a n i s R. The structure and chemistry of the synovial membrane in health and disease, in book: The biol. basis of med., ed. by E. E. Bittar, v. 3, p. 269, L. — N. Y., 1969; The joints and synovial fluid, ed. by L. Sokoloff, N. Y. a. o., 1980.


And. H. Belov; V. V. Kupriyanov (An.), author of the list V. V. Kupriyanov.

Яндекс.Метрика