From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SYNDROME (syndromum; Greek syndrome confluence, accumulation) — steady set of a number of symptoms with a uniform pathogeny. The page can make a wedge, a picture of all diseases (see) or speak rapidly it, being at the same time display of pathology of one system or body.

Page it is not equivalent to a disease as nosological unit since it can be connected with different diseases. Nair., the acute leukosis, hemophilia, Verlgof's disease, cirrhosis, a scurvy, etc. can be hemorrhagic S.'s cause. Sometimes the term «syndrome» is used as a synonym of a disease; it first of all belongs to diseases, the etiology and a pathogeny to-rykh are not clear. At the same time proceed from the descriptive principle, based on repeatability of the main lines a wedge. pictures at different patients. In such cases establishment of an etiology not always leads to replacement of the term «syndrome» with the term «disease», and both of them can exist as equivalent. From modern positions the term «simptomo-komggleks» is not unambiguous to the term «syndrome», though is applied sometimes as its synonym. According to many clinical physicians, the symptom complex characterizes the symptomatology of a disease stated in a condensed form i.e. can be semiotics expression of a nosology, syndrome or complication of a disease.

In modern medicine it is described apprx. 1500 syndromes. Their names often have spontaneous character. Many S. are called by name the doctor or doctors, for the first time or most precisely them described.

From domestic clinical physicians the big contribution to development of syndromic approach to a disease was made by M. P. Konchalovsky who estimated progressiveness of this principle. In 1939 he noted that «the clinic steps aside from a motionless anatomic organodiagnostika formations of syndromes and symptom complexes». In a crust, time syndromic approach was widely included into medical practice. The possible reason of it, except complexity of knowledge of a number of morbid conditions, is inherent S. stability and pattern of emergence. In to diagnosis (see) syndromic approach quite often is a stage of establishment of the nosological diagnosis since S.'s recognition plays an important role in determination of nosological essence of the most important displays of a disease or its complications. The pages characterizing defeat of any body reflect relative specificity of symptoms of a disease, napr, renal S. at acute and hron. glomerulonephritis. The syndromic diagnosis has certain advantages both for pre-hospital, and for hospital stages. It can be quickly established at the smallest volume of diagnostic testings. At the same time it is sufficient for justification of pathogenetic therapy and an operative measure (e.g., a syndrome of an acute abdomen). However with development of medical knowledge of the reasons of diseases on the first place nosological approach and etiological treatment act.

Wide use of syndromic approach led to an undesirable tendency to simplify the concept «syndrome». E.g., expressions «pain syndrome» and «a dispeptic syndrome» do not answer the maintenance of the concept «syndrome» since they mean in essence symptoms (see), having ambiguous semiotics contents at different diseases. In this tendency danger of wrong interpretation of a disease is covered and limited to lay down. tactics, i.e. leaving from nosological and syndromic approach to simple, symptomatic.

The syndromic analysis is used during the studying of mechanisms of development of a disease since he allows to find the so-called forkhmalny S. giving the chance to open nek-ry pathogenetic mechanisms. At the same time the wedge, inhomogeneity of the studied material can be connected with existence of several forms of a disease. The syndromic analysis allows to find these forms and to characterize their typical a wedge, a picture.

Bibliography: Jordan B. and Yankov Ya. Rare syndromes and diseases of a nervous system, the lane with bolg., M., 1981; L and z about in with to and with I. R. Reference book of clinical symptoms and syndromes, M., 1981; L and y e r B. and About l r and x. Clinical syndromes, the lane with it., M., 1974.

E. I. Sokolov, T. A. Polosova.