From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SYNDESMOLOGIA [arthrologia (PNA), juncturae ossium (JNA), syndesmologia (BNA), Greek syndesmos communication, connection + logos the doctrine] — the doctrine about connection of bones.

C. together with osteology (see) and myology (see) makes the section anatomy (see), the studying office of the movement.

The term «syndesmologia» was for the first time offered by J. Weit-brecht in 1742 and throughout more than two centuries had no synonyms. However by Iyenskaya's (1935) drawing up, and then the Parisian (1955) anatomic nomenclatures the term «juncturae ossium» (connection of bones) was entered, to-ry in the last option of PNA (1975) it is replaced with the term «arthrologia» (arthrology). And earlier quite often understood as the term «arthrology» not only the doctrine about true joints and their pathology, but also used it, characterizing connections of bones. The international nomenclature commission (JANC) eliminated the word «junctura» in the terms PNA and replaced it with the term «articulatio» acceptable for all forms of connections of bones.

In S. select two sections: the general and private S. V three main types of connection of bones are considered by the general S.: synarthroses (see); joints (see), or a diarthrosis — the synovial connections which are characterized by existence of the joint cavity filled with synovial fluid, joint surfaces and the joint capsule; also intermediate form of connections is had — symphyses (semi-joints) in the cartilage to-rykh located between the ends of bones there is a slit-like cavity which does not have a structure of the real joint cavity. In the general S. formation of types of connection of bones in filo-is stated and ontogenesis, their morfofunktsionalny characteristic is given and elements of biomechanics of joints understand.

Private S. considers a structure and function of each joint or other type of connection on departments. So, study connections of bones skulls (see), backbone (see), thorax (see), etc.

In medical higher education institutions S.'s studying begins after acquaintance of students to a structure of bones or studying of bones of a certain department (a trunk, extremities, etc.). The general S. is stated in a lecture course, private — on a practical training in the section hall and the anatomic museum. In all textbooks of anthropotomy S. is presented in the section studying bodies of the movement along with osteology and a myology.

E. A. Vorobyova.