From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SYNANTHROPIC ANIMALS (Greek syn-together, with + anthropos of people) — the group name of the wildings who adapted to life near habitals of the person. Many views of the Village. meet in natural biotopes (see) separately from the person, but in human settlements form prospering populations (see) and considerably expand the field of the distribution, moving ahead out of limits of an initial, natural area together with the person. So, the house sparrow extended on the cities and settlements far to the North of Yakutia in unusual for it, a zone of the forest-tundra and even tundra. To Page. also the group partially synanthropic, or anthropophilous, the animal species (a hare hare, an ordinary vole, a martin, a starling) which are preferring to lodge and having higher number in the developed territories adjoins. The opposite group is made by the mizantropny (ksenantropny) types disappearing at development of the territory by the person. Borders of group of Page. are conditional. One researchers include in it parasites of the person, others — consider the term «synanthropic animals» a synonym of the term «cohabitants of the person».

Distinguish several degrees of a sinantropnost: absolute (animals meet only in human settlements); prevailing, or valid (representatives of a look occupy all types of constructions, including modern multi-storey buildings, and after the person extended far beyond a natural area); geographical, or limited (representatives of a look adapted to human constructions only in a natural area); ecologically limited (animals cannot live in modern constructions, but willingly occupy primitive pise-walled and wooden structures).

At various groups of animals degree of a sinantropnbsta is not identical. Among arthropod animals (see. Arthropods ) the greatest number of synanthropic types in a class insects (see). Synanthropic vertebrata are a hl. obr. representatives of classes birds (see) and mammals (see) though the lizards (e.g., geckoes and anolisa) eating fleas willingly lodge in the countries with tropical and subtropical climate in houses, and on external walls of houses — nek-ry species of frogs tree frogs. From mammals the greatest number of synanthropic types among rodents (see).

The reasons of transition to a sinantropnost at different types of animals are various, but generally this abundance and availability of food, existence of shelters, shelters from bad weather and predators, the favorable microclimate of the enclosed space suitable for existence of thermophilic types, such as cockroaches or a red house (Pharaohs) ant.

The process of adaptation to dwelling near the person which began in the Stone Age and continuing with the increasing intensity is explained by strengthening of influence of activity of the person on the surrounding nature owing to what on the globe there is practically no place left which anyway are not affected by economic activity of the person.

Separate views of the Village. bring to the person benefit. Insectivorous birds and lizards treat them. Nek-ry bird species (e.g., a house sparrow) in rural areas can do notable harm to crops grain, but in the city are one of the main fighters of harmful insects, to-rymi they bring up baby birds, saving that green plantings of parks and boulevards.

Majority of views of the Village. does harm. Huge economic damage is caused by rats and mice. They not only eat and spoil food products, gnaw through floors and walls of buildings, but can become the reason of the fires, damaging isolation of electrical wires.

Number of views of the Village. has medical value. Nek-rye from Page., in particular flies (see), can serve as mechanical carriers of causative agents of helminthoses, dysentery, poliomyelitis (see. Transmissible diseases ). Many of hematothermal Pages. are owners of parasites — carriers of a number of prirodnoochagovy diseases and tanks of activators (see. Natural ochagovost ). At the same time the centers of many infections can exist and be supported by means of Page. directly in settlements of the person. Infection of people with an ornithosis, lymphocytic choriomeningitis, vesicular, or ospopodobny, by a rickettsiosis, rat, or spotty, fever, etc. is connected with synanthropic rodents and birds; for many infections of Page. become the «relay» link providing transmission of infection from the natural center in the dwelling, napr, «house» flashes of a tularemia, cases of a skin leushmaniosis at house mice etc.

Relation of the person to Page. it is expressed in active attraction of useful types and continuous fight with harmful. In addition to development of new drugs and methods of controlling (see. Disinsection , Deratization ), searches of ways of prevention of penetration into constructions and dwellings in them harmful Pages are conducted.

See also Domestic animals .

Bibliography: Synantropization and domestikation of the animal population, under the editorship of Yu. A. Isakov and V. K. Rakhilin, M., 1969; Shtakelberg A. A. Synanthropic dipterous faunae of the USSR, M. — JI., 1956; Kucheruk V. V. Synanthro-pic rodents and their significance in the transmission of infections, in book: Theoretical questions of natural feci of diseases, ed. by B. Rosicky a. K. Heyberger, p. 353, Prague, 1965, bibliogr.

G. A. Sidorova.