From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SYDENHAM, Sidenkhem Thomas (Sydenham Thomas; 1624 — 1689) — the English doctor, one of founders of clinical medicine.

SYDENHAM, Sidenkhem Thomas

In 1642 arrived in Oxford un-t, the same year participated in the English bourgeois revolution on O. Cromwell's party. Gained the first medical skills under the leadership of the general headquarters doctor J. Cox. Upon termination of Oxford un-that received degree of the bachelor of medicine (1649) and it was admitted to the Oxford medical board of «All Saints». In 1659 studied applied medicine in Montpellier at Barbeyrac.

Since 1665 was engaged in medical practice in London. Dokt. degree is awarded Cambridge un-volume for work «Medical observations over acute diseases...» (1676).

The exclusive gift a wedge, observations and generalizations provided success of practical and scientific work of T. Sydenham: he was the most popular doctor in London; its activity promoted further sweeping changes in methodology a wedge, medicine, in formation of thinking of the clinical physician-is-investigator, in training of the young doctor. In 17 century for further development a wedge, medicine it was necessary to discard sterile theorizing and to replace it with impartial medical observation and systematization of the received facts. It defined T. Sydenham's position in a question of training of the doctor — he opposed scholastic training in favor of a practical «craft» apprenticeship.

Works T. Sydenham in the transfer into Latin made by the author or his pupil and the voluntary secretary — the famous philosopher materialist J. Locke, left in London and Amsterdam since 1666 and made the original encyclopedia of applied medicine of 17 century based on observations at a bed of the patient. In English they were published only after the death of the scientist. T. Sydenham considered a disease as process of fight of «nature» (organism) against the implemented disease-producing beginning (the acute disease undertook the main sampling unit) and after Hippocrates considered that the doctor shall support salutary forces of an organism. Noting the similarity which is observed quite often a wedge, pictures of diseases, various by the nature, and a possibility of different displays of the same disease, he, like the botanists classifying plants aimed to give the objective description of certain forms of a disease (species) and it promoted development nozol. the directions in medicine. He accurately distinguished acute and chronic diseases as «acute — from God, chronic — from ourselves» (i.e. are caused by constitutional predisposition, errors in a diet and other disturbances of a healthy lifestyle).

T. Sydenham possesses detailed and exact descriptions a wedge, pictures of many diseases, including whooping cough, measles, smallpox, hysteria (he called it «a chameleon, to-ry continuously changes the colors»). But its role in studying of scarlet fever, rheumatism and gout is especially big. It for the first time precisely described symptoms of scarlet fever, allocated it as independent a wedge, a form from group of the acute fevers which are followed by rash and gave it the modern name («scarlet fever»). It from diverse group of a chorea and convulsive states where included hysteria, epilepsy, etc., allocated (1686) rheumatic hysterical chorea, edges entered literature as Sydenham's chorea. Among arthritises he distinguished joint rheumatism, noting young age of patients, seasonality (fall) of exacerbations of a disease, «volatility» of damage of joints, such symptoms as pain, reddening and a swelling. In 1683 in «The treatise about gout and dropsy» it gave the classical description of acute gouty arthritis and allocated gout as an independent disease other than rheumatism. He looked for specific remedies for diseases of hl. obr. among vegetable matters. The European medicine is obliged to his medical authority that the bark of a cinchonic tree imported from South America was widely adopted as antimalarial means. He considered that therapy shall begin only after the diagnosis is established, and treated an anemia iron preparations, gout — - a diet and gymnastics, applied opium at ponosa and as a calmative. He quite often resorted to bloodlettings at middle-aged persons and a strong constitution, but was an opponent sudorific, antipyretics as saw salutary reaction of an organism in fever. «The experienced physician shall abstain sometimes from any treatment, and in other time to use very vigorous means...» — Sydenham taught. In the medical practice it was quite often limited to psychotherapeutic influence. Claim what among contemporaries to it was not equal in art to come into contact with the patient.

T. Sydenham was not a professor and did not base any new medical system, did not leave behind objekhmisty literary inheritance (all its works find room in one volume), school of sciences in strict value of this word. However its influence on development of medicine was so obvious and about to l zhit l-nym that brought it glory of «the English Hippocrates» and the classic a wedge, medicine. T. Sydenham's followers were to G. Burkhava, R. Morton who described tuberculosis, Lanchizi (G. M of Lancisi) — the author of classical works on heart troubles, B. Ramazzini and many other doctors of the end 17 — the beginnings of 18 century.

Works: Methodus curandi febres propriis observationibus superstructa, Londini, 1668; Observationes medicae circa morborum acutorum historiam et curationem, Londini, 1676; Tractatus de podagra et hydrops, Londini, 1683; Opera universa, Londini, 1685.

Bibliography: Kushev H. Sydenham (Concerning the 300 anniversary since birth), the Doctor, business, No. 21, page 1659, 1926; Meyer - Shteynegt. and Zudgofk. History of medicine, the lane with it., page 335, M., 1925; Persons S. A. Osnovopolozhnik of clinical medicine Thomas Sidenkhem, Klien, medical, t. 43, No. 11, page 139, 1965; Geschichte der Medizin, hrsg. v. D. Tutzne, S. 87 u. and., V., 1980; Major H. A history of medicine, v. 1, p. 524, Springfield, 1954.

V. I. Borodulin.