Distinguish SWIMMING on a water surface and SWIMMING under water (see. Scuba diving ). The item on a water surface combines sports, recreational, applied, medical, game (see. Water polo ). In sports P. four ways — a crawl on a breast and on spin, butterfly stroke and a breast stroke are most widely applied.
The item develops muscular system, mobility in joints, improves coordination of movements, strengthens a nervous system, improves a metabolism, expands functionality of respiratory and cardiovascular systems.
At rest well trained athletes have a pulse within 50 — 60 beats per minute, arterial pressure — 110/70 mm of mercury. The volume of heart at male swimmers averages 1065 cm 3 , women have 630 cm 3 (at the healthy people who are not playing sports, respectively 760 cm 3 and 580 cm 3 ). An excursion of a thorax at swimmers 15 and and more, the vital capacity of lungs at men to 6000 cm 3 , at women to 5200 cm3.
During the trainings change of physiological functions at swimmers depends on the volume of the performed work. So, pulse can reach 160 — 180 beats per minute, systolic arterial pressure of 190 — 200 mm of mercury., lung ventilation to 120 l/min, and the maximum oxygen consumption at high-class swimmers — to 5,4 l/min (65,2 ml/kg a minute), oxygen debt — 13,1 l. The general energy consumption at sports P. makes 700 — 900 kcal/hour.
The main contraindications to occupations sports P. — heart diseases, a rheumatic carditis, chronic bronchitis, diseases of ENT organs, kidneys, organic diseases of the central nervous system, a disease of skin.
Training in sports P. can be begun from 5 years, from 9 years it is allowed to participate in competitions.
At medical control (see) for swimmers the greatest attention is paid to a condition of ENT organs, cardiovascular and respiratory systems and biochemical indicators of blood and urine (to content of lactic acid in blood, creatine and creatinine in urine, etc.).
Typical diseases of the swimmers training with big loadings, especially in the conditions of indoor pools — diseases of ENT organs (an adenoid disease, rhinitis, diseases of adnexal nasal cavities, chronic catarral processes of a middle ear). The contributing factors are hit of water at a breath in adnexal nasal cavities and in a tympanic cavity, disturbance of nasal breath, irritant action on mucous membranes of residual chlorine in water, washing away of an earwax. Swimmers can sometimes have a follicular conjunctivitis (prevention — use of safety spectacles). Maceration of skin and irritation its chlorine can promote implementation of an infection and emergence epidermophitias (see) at violation of the rules of use of the pool. Injuries during the swimming are rare.
Halls in which there are bathtubs of the pool shall have a light factor 1: 5, illumination not less than 100 lx. Air humidity no more than 75% at a temperature of 25 — 27 °. Water temperature in the pool — 26 — 28 °, and during the training in swimming of children — 28 — 30 °. The caption of colibacillus — 300 ml, is allowed in separate tests of water no more than 100 ml. Content of residual chlorine shall be ranging from 0,5 to 0,7 mg/l (1,5 — 2 mg/l are admissible at night). Amount of the added fresh water — not less than 10 — 15%, and the frequency of washing of the filter — not less once a day. Daily disinfection of floors, walls, the equipment is made by solution of chloroamine (see. Sports constructions ).
In the pool persons, last are allowed to occupations medical examination (see). Before an entrance to bathtubs of the pool visitors wash under a shower hot water with soap and pass through a foot bath with running water.
The item is included in the program of physical training of preschool children, school students and students, and also in number of obligatory norms of the GTO complex.
Recreational P. is one of forms of mass sports and recreational work with the population. Systematic occupations of P. have the tempering effect, promote prevention of respiratory diseases, improvement of physical development. Do recreational swimming in the groups of health created on sports bases at ZhEK, at the enterprises, in educational institutions, etc.
Treat applied P.: overcoming by swimming water barriers, swimming in the complicated conditions (a cold water, waves, a strong current, swimming in clothes, with objects, etc.), rescue sinking, etc.
P.'s training of babies gained distribution. The best age to start occupations 2 — 3 weeks — 3 months — the period when yet congenital swimming reflexes did not die away. Training is provided in the conditions of children's policlinic in mikrobasseyna, houses — in a bathtub in hours of wakefulness of the child and terminates in 15 — 20 min. prior to feeding. Depth of water in a bathtub — 30 — 40 cm, in a month pour a full bathtub. Duration of the first occupation is 10 min., water temperature 36 — 37 °. Every month water temperature decreases on 0,5 °, duration of occupations increases for 2 — 5 min., reaching by the end of the year 60 min. at water temperature 31 °. Babies swim with assistance of the head hands of the instructor or by means of foam and porolonovy floats.
The item is applied as remedy at damages and diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system (the residual phenomena after poliomyelitis, effects of injury of a backbone and peripheral nerves, neurosises and asthenic states); at injuries and diseases of the musculoskeletal device (after changes, scoliosis, flat-footedness, etc.); at diseases of exchange (gout, a diabetes mellitus, obesity); at diseases of internals (an idiopathic hypertensia of I and II And stages, diseases of peripheral vessels, bronchial asthma, etc.). Special exercises in water are applied taking into account features of a pathogeny and clinical forms of a disease. Procedures in the pool can be combined with other LFK forms. Optimum water temperature 30 °.
Before P.'s occupations medical inspection is necessary and during regular trainings — medical control and self-checking. Self-checking includes: assessment of health, dream, appetite, working capacity; daily check of body weight (falling of body weight is inadmissible with a normal initial weight); a condition of pulse before and after occupations (in 10 — 15 minutes after classes pulse shall not exceed initial size, at overfatigue pulse becomes frequent, developing of arrhythmia is possible); vital capacity of lungs after the occupation increases by 100 — 200 cm3, at overfatigue the vital capacity of lungs decreases (see. Self-checking of the athlete ).
Bibliography: V. M wolves. Recovery processes in sport, M. 1977; Swimming — sport young, under the editorship of R. E. Moty-lyanskaya, etc., M., 1976; With t about about in and L. I. and H and to and t and I. P's N. Medical indicators for selection of young swimmers, in book: Nauch. bases of medical control in owls. to system fizich. education, under the editorship of V. A. Siluyanova, etc., page 136, M., 1975; Tumanyan G. S. and Martirosov E. G. Teloslozheniye and sport, M., 1976; F and r with about in 3. P. Plavat earlier, than to go, M., 1978.
G. A. Goncharova.