SWEET SUBSTANCES - the substances of various chemical nature having sweet taste; nek-ry of them are used in food of the person.
Century carry to S. well acquired and having important food value monosaccharides (see) and disaccharides (cm), and also polyatomic alcohol — glycerin (see), xylitol (see), mannitol (see), sorbite (see), nek-ry amino acids and their derivatives — glycine (see), alanine (see), D - 6-hlortriptofan, a number of peptides and their ethers (natsr., aspartame — methyl ether of aspartylphenylalanine), nek-ry proteins (e.g., monellin, taumagln), cyclohexanesulphamates (cyclomates) derivative about - the sulfobenzoic to - you. napr, saccharin (see), etc.
Provided that sweet sucrose (see) accept equal 1, other S.' sweet of century approximately makes: alanine 0,92 — 1,7, aspartame 160 — 200, glycine 0,46 — 1,19, glucose 0,53 — 1, xylitol 0,9 — 1, lactose 0,16 — 0,6, a mannitol 0,45 — 0,57, a monellin 2000, saccharin 190 — 700, sorbite 0,48 — 0,54, a taumatin 1600 — 3000, fructose 1 — 0,3 — 1,7, D - 6-hlortriptofana 1300, cyclomates 35.
Xylitol, sorbite and fructose found application in prevention and treatment of a number of diseases. These S. assimilate century cells of a liver without participation of insulin that allows to use them in food of patients with a diabetes mellitus (see. diabetes mellitus ); replacement of sugar named by S. century, especially fructose, interferes with development of caries (see. Caries of tooth ). Xylitol and sorbite are soaked up in intestines worse, than glucose (in experiences on rats absorption makes: sorbite — 50%, xylitol — 62%, glucose — about 100%), and, therefore, at the use of xylitol and sorbite less energy is emitted. Use of xylitol and sorbite at treatment is based on it obesity (see). Use of saccharin as substitute of sugar in our country is limited; metabolites of tsik-lamat show gonadotoksichesky and pressor effects (experimental data). The large number of the substances having sweet taste is not used in food of the person because of their toxicity. Dulcin, m nitroaniline, lead acetate, etc. are that, e.g.
New harmless S.' search the century which are not an energy source for the person is of great importance. E.g., as a result of chemical modification of the substances which are contained in a peel of fruits of a citrus dihydrophenyl-styryl ketones of neohesperidin are received, to-rye 1500 times more with pleasure sugar and at the same time have no its negative properties, and also negative properties of nek-ry other S. of century
Bibliography: To r y sh e N P. F. and P and-f e with Yu. I. Sorbit, xylitol, glycerin and their use in medicine, Kiev, 1979; Assessment of some nutritional supplements, the lane with English, M., 1976; Beerens H. Sucres et yo (1i1sogap18, N£ohesp£ridinedihydrochal-cone et aspartam, Ann. Falsif. exp. chim. Toxicol., t. 74, p. 261,1981; L i n d e of K. Non-nutritive sweeting agents, Nutr. et Dieta (Basel), v. 29, p. 82, 1980; Sugars in nutrition, ed. by H. L. Sipple a. K. W. McNutt, N. Y. — L., 1974.
V. A. Konyshev.