SWEDEN

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SWEDEN,

the Kingdom of Sweden — the state in Northern Europe, is located in east part of the Scandinavian peninsula. Borders on Norway and Finland. In the South and the East the territory of Sweden waters of the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia, in the southwest — the passages Eresunn (separates Sweden from Denmark) wash, Kattegat and Skagerak. As a part of Sweden — the islands of Gotland and Eland in the Baltic Sea. The area (including the called islands) 499,9 thousand sq.km. Population of St. 8,3 million people (1983). The capital — Stockholm (647 thousand people, 1982). Administratively Sh.'s territory is divided on 24 Lena. Ofits. language — Swedish.

The centralized Swedish state arose in 10 century Sweden — constitutional monarchy (kingdom). The king carries out mainly representative functions. The supreme legislative body — unicameral parliament (riksdag).

Sowing. and zap. Sh.'s regions are occupied with the Scandinavian mountains (height to 2123 m) representing a combination of ridges to sites of the Alpine relief, plateaus and vnu-trigorny hollows. There are St. 200 small glaciers. In the north of the country the plateau Norrland (height from 200 to 800 m), going down to the Gulf of Bothnia is located with ledges. The tableland is deeply dismembered by breaks with the river and lake valleys put in them. To the south there is a Sredneshvedsky lowland, in the south — the height Smoland dismembered by radial system of valleys on separate ridges and arrays. On the coast low rocks prevail, near to-rykh the small islands and shkher who are strongly complicating coastal navigation are located. The temperate climate, is subject to strong oteplyayushchy influence of Gulf Stream. In sowing. areas where the role of continental moderate and Arctic air masses, climate more severe amplifies. In the central and southern regions of the country climate transitional from sea to continental (places — sea).

III. — the advanced industrial country with intensive agriculture. The main natural wealth — the wood, iron ore, hydraulic power. There are reserves of uranium raw materials sufficient for providing nuclear power. Primary branches of the industry: mechanical engineering (electrical equipment, shipbuilding), целлюлозно-бумая^-иая and woodworking, metallurgical, mining. The advanced mechanized agriculture provides for 90% of need of the country for food (in calories). The main industry — meat-and-milk livestock production.

Apprx. 95% of the population — Swedes. More than 400 thousand immigrants live in the country: Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Germans, etc. Average population density — 16,6 people on 1 sq.km (1982). The population is concentrated by hl. obr. in average and southern parts of the country, 4/5 population live in the cities and settlements of city type.


The natural movement of the population is characterized by the following indicators: birth rate (for 1000

us.) in 1970 — 1983 had a steady tendency to decrease and made 13,7 (1970) and 11,1 (1983) with a simultaneous strong growth of the general mortality — 9,95 (1970) and 10,9 (1983) for 1000 the population. Indicators of a natural increase for the same years made 3,75 and 0,1 respectively, and the indicator of child mortality (on 1000 live-born) decreased with 11,7 in

1970 to 7,0 in 1980 — 1985. The average duration of the forthcoming life in 1980 for men made 72,8 years, for women — 79,1 years. Specific weight of a group of persons of advanced ages steadily grows in Sh., as well as in other Scandinavian countries (16,5% of the population at the age of 65 years and are more senior (1981).

(On 100 000 population) diseases of the blood circulatory system (611,7), malignant new growths (233,0), accidents, poisonings and injuries (58,6), diseases of a respiratory organs (72,0) and the alimentary system (31,3) were the main reasons for death in 1982.

Owing to inadequacy of systems of registration of cases of diseases it is impossible to determine scales of prevalence of various diseases with an accuracy. In 1979 the most widespread inf. the diseases which are subject to obligatory registration were: epidemic parotitis (23 194), gonorrhea (18 451), flu (13 906), measles (8640), streptococcal quinsy and scarlet fever (5213), whooping cough (4099), salmonellosis (1963), bacillar dysentery (722) and viral hepatitis (501).

In 1977 diseases of the blood circulatory system, an injury and poisoning, malignant new growths, diseases of a musculoskeletal system, c were the most frequent reasons of hospitalization, according to selective researches. N of page, respiratory organs, mental disorders, diseases of the digestive system and endocrine system, etc. The serious problem is represented by alcoholism.

The state insurance of health, expenses on Krom are covered by subsidies of the state (15%) and contributions of employers (85%), is obligatory for all residents of the country aged 16 years are more senior; maternity allowances are entered.

The law on insurance on a case of an injury on production (1977) provides obligatory insurance of all persons working on hiring on a case of the injury or disease which arose in operating time, on the way for work or from work and also on a case as a result of influence of factors of the production environment. The law on the production environment (1978) provides employer's liability for safety of the production environment for health. At all enterprises, on to-rykh not less than 50 people working on hiring are busy, the local committees of labor protection including representatives of administration and labor unions are surely created. Responsibility for work in the field of professional hygiene is conferred on National council on labor protection and professional hygiene. Local bodies — regional bureaus of the Inspectorate of labor protection in the industry are subordinated to it. In regional-tsakh departments of occupational diseases are created. In 1977 services of professional hygiene functioned at all enterprises, on to-rykh not less than 1000 workers were busy, and also covered a number of categories of public servants, employees of councils of len and municipal bodies: medical aid was provided with special workers of health care at the enterprises or in 190 centers of professional hygiene. 1,7 million from total number of 4,5 million workers and employees used this type of medical care.

Control of health care is exercised by Min-in of health care and social affairs. Control of the medical service provided with both the state, and private sector of health care carries out National council of health care and social security. Administrative management by healthcare institutions on places is assigned to councils of len. The medical division into districts existing in the country not always corresponds to administrative.

Medical areas are subdivided into sites of primary help with the population of 10 — 50 thousand persons. On each site there are one or several centers of health care. In 1980 in the country there were 711 medical institutions on 123 074 beds (148 beds on 10 000 zhit.), including 93 multi-profile-tsy on 60 480 beds (including the stationary medical institutions serviced generally average medical personnel). Besides, there were 13 local (preferential rural) BCs on 1675 beds. Among specialized BCs — 1 infectious-tsa (231 beds), 3 rheumatological (361 beds), 6 tubercular BCs (803 beds), 30 psychiatric BCs (18 682 beds), 230 special houses for disabled for mentally retarded (8550 beds),

11 geriatric BCs and institutions for chronically sick and recovering, etc.

In large regional-tsakh, servicing the population numbering from 0,6 to 1,6 million people, almost all medical specialties are presented; their bed fund makes about 1200 — 2300 beds. These would be a wedge, bases medical f-tov high fur boots, and also base for scientific research. B-tsy len consist of 15 — 20 specialized divisions and provide with medical service the population numbering 200 — 300 thousand persons. In branches of BC of len there are therapists, specialists in the general surgery, anesthesiology and radiology; each of these institutions services from 60 to 90 thousand persons.

Extra hospital help in the basic is given by the centers of health care (in 1975 — 680 centers of health care, 1877 established posts of regional specialists of health care and 2050 regional nurses). Stomatol. help in 80 — 85% of cases is given by privately practicing dentists, and other 15 — 20% are provided with National dental service (persons more young are serviced than 17 years free of charge).

Medical aid to women during pregnancy and after the delivery, and also consultation on questions of contraception are carried out in 652 clinics for women (according to WHO data, 1977); in these consultations more than 90% of all pregnant women are captured by observation. All childbirth happens in delivery rooms of BC. The law on abortions of 1975 provides the right for abortion until the end of the 18th week of pregnancy; the law on sterilization of 1975 legally stipulates the right to choose sterilization as means of restriction of birth rate to men and women 25 years are more senior.

All children are observed in children's consultation where they are, as a rule, inspected about 10 times within the first year of life, 3 times within the second year of life, and then twice a year. Besides, the pediatric nurse visits children at home. During the general medical inspection of children at the age of

4 years at them check sight, hearing, the speech, dental health and food, the level of physical and mental development. In 1974 there were 1341 children's consultations providing coverage of 99% of children aged till 1 year and 70% of children of preschool age, hl. obr. preventive maintenance (vaccination, educational work on questions of a balanced diet, consultation on problems of education of children and protection of their mental health). During training at school comprehensive examination of the state of health of children is conducted 4 times. Vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough and poliomyelitis captured practically all children; against tuberculosis — it is selective.

The name and content of work of healthcare institutions of Sh. not always correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see Treatment and prevention facilities abroad).

The Swedish pharmaceutical industry delivers about 40% of the medicine sold in the country. Medicines before they can go on sale, are subject to registration by National council of health care and social security.

The national bacteriological laboratory is independent public authority, to-ry carries out diagnostic testings, researches of pharmaceuticals, foodstuff, water and other materials. The laboratory provides unification and safety of diagnostic testings, delivers bacterial. drugs, exercises supervision of activities for fight against epidemic and infectious diseases and conducts the scientific research connected with these tasks.

The orders and instructions concerning the main a dignity. actions and pollution control of the environment, publishes Min-in of health care and social affairs. In the country a number of laws, in particular the law on the products harmful to the person and the environment (1973), the law on the obligatory message on cases of emission in the environment of harmful waste (1976), the resolution on exhaust gases of cars (1976), the law on sulfur fuel (1976), the law

on measures against pollution of water by vessels in the Baltic Sea (1976) and the Resolution on rules of the international automobile transport of potentially dangerous loads is adopted (1974). The main responsibility for state of environment is conferred on Min-in of agriculture. The national council on environmental control is the central administrative body in the field of environmental problems.

Planning and coordination of activity on a dignity. to education at the regional and local levels carries out Committee on sanitary education at National council of health care and social security.

In the country are available balneal (Medevi, Porla, Ronnebyu) and mud (Gustav-Sberg, Lannashe, L of an eye, Marstrand, etc.) resorts.

In the country shortage of medical shots is noted. In 1980 in Sweden there were 18 300 doctors (22,0 on 10 000 us.), 8320 stomatologists, 720 druggists, 440 midwifes, 3100 honeys-sisters-midwifes, 55 770 nurses, 17 460 assistants to nurses, 2090 medico-social workers, etc.

Training of doctors is carried out on 6 medical f-takh the high fur boots subordinated to Min-vu of education. Predegree training continues 5V2 year then graduates would work in at first as interns (in total 21 month) before obtaining the license for the right to be engaged in practical activities, and then — interns for obtaining the certificate of the doctor of the general profile or the specialist (specialization demands 4 — 5 years' preparation). Training of nurses is carried out at 34 schools of nurses, trudoterapevta prepare at 9 schools, physiotherapists — at 3 schools (1977).

Basic medical researches are concentrated in clinics at departments medical f-tov high fur boots. A wedge, researches are conducted by hl. obr. in university clinics and in large-tsakh len; applied researches are conducted at all levels of a health system. Organizing and advisory body in the field of a scientific medical research is Council for medical researches, to-ry annually distributes funds of 80 million kroner (apprx. 4,5% of total amount of expenses — on services public здравоохра^ a neniya).

Bibliography: The sixth review of a condition of health care in the world of 1973 — 1977, the p. 2, page 390, Geneva, WHO, 1981; Health services in Europe, v. 2, Copenhagen, 1981; World health statistics annual 1984, Geneva, 1984. M of H. Savelyev.

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