From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SWEAT (sudor) — the secret of sweat glands representing colourless, slightly opalescent, salty taste liquid.

At the room temperature of people allocates 400 — 600 ml of P. a day. The item contains 98 — 99% of water, nitrogenous substances (urea, uric to - that, creatinine, ammonia), some amino acids (serine, a histidine), traces of protein, urocanic to - that, flying fat to - you, soaps, cholesterol, salts of alkali metals (sodium chloride, apprx. 0,5% prevails), steam rooms efiroserny to - you and aromatic oxyacids, glucose, vitamins, biogenic amines, napr, acetylcholine, catecholamines, a histamine, steroid hormones. Average content in P. of sodium — 134 mg / 100 ml, potassium — 39 mg / 100 ml, chlorine — 161 mg / 100 ml, calcium — 0,7 mg / 100 ml, magnesium — 2,4 mg / 100 ml, phosphorus — 3,5 mg / 100 ml, iodine, copper, manganese, iron — traces. In normal conditions with P. it is allocated apprx. 360 mg of nitrogen a day. The maintenance of a histamine in P. sometimes happens more, than in blood. At nek-ry persons with P. chlorides are strenuously emitted that can lead to a lack of sodium chloride of an organism. Concentration of sodium and calcium in P. is less, than in blood that testifies to a delay of these substances in sweat glands. Potassium contains in P. in large numbers only at the beginning sweating (see), and then its quantity decreases.

In fiziol, conditions the qualitative structure of P. varies a little. However its structure and active reaction are not identical on various sites of skin; e.g., the greatest number of chlorides is defined in P. of sweat glands of a neck, the smallest — in P. of sweat glands of hips, shins and the back of brushes. In P. of apocrine glands (see. Glands ) a significant amount of lipids contains. The item of the person and carnivores is characterized acid, and vegetarians — alkali reaction; pH of the sweat emitted by ekkrinny glands fluctuates within 3,8 — 5,6, pH of sweat of apocrine glands — within 6,2 — 6,9. The most acid is P. allocated at hyperhidrosis (see); however after long sweating its active reaction gradually approaches neutral. Specific weight of P. fluctuates between 1,001 and 1,006, in rare instances reaches 1,010. The item can have the off-flavor caused by hl. obr. presence flying fat to - the t which are formed at its bacterial splitting (see. Osmidrosis ).

Content of mineral and organic substances in P. changes depending on character of food and the general condition of an organism, napr, on the content of iodine the great influence is exerted funkts, by activity of a thyroid gland. At sharp restriction of salt in food, at introduction of AKTG the content of sodium and chlorine in P. decreases, at an addisonovy disease increases. Thus, quantity sodium (see) and chlorine (see) reflects a degree of activity of bark of the adrenal glands influencing on in P. electrolytic exchange (see). During the muscular work, especially at sports meets, P. contains a significant amount milk to - you (to 500 mg / 100 ml and more) and the increased amount of nitrogenous substances (to 1 g of nitrogen per day). Total amount of the substances emitted with P. is defined by the number of P. formed within a day reaching quite often 1 l, and under nek-ry conditions — 2 l and more. With P. from 2 to 30 g of sodium chloride can be allocated and up to 1 — 2 g of nitrogen. At a diabetes mellitus in P. the content of glucose increases, and at diseases of a liver — bilious to - t. At uraemia and a cholera anury the amount of the urea emitted by sweat glands can increase so that it is deposited on skin in the form of crystals — urhydrosis (see). Mercury, arsenic, iron, iodine, bromine, quinine, the benzoic, amber, tartaric, benzaminoacetic, salicylic to - you, salol, antipyrine, methylene blue and other substances at their introduction to an organism appear in the Item. Various coloring of P. — a chromhydrosis — can be caused by existence in P. of an indican which is formed of the indoxyl arriving from intestines. Sometimes the chromhydrosis arises after introduction to an organism of copper, iron, iodine and other substances. Blue coloring of P. is caused by existence in an indigo blood plasma, a piotsianida, phosphate of ferrous oxide. Very seldom bloody P. — emergence of erythrocytes in P. meets (see. Hematidrosis ).

For measurement of intensity of sweating numerous techniques are offered, from to-rykh practical value have the following: weighing of the person on special sensitive scales; receiving chromotypes of drops of P. on skin during the putting on it the solution containing iodine and then starch which at P.'s secretion enters interaction with iodine and is painted in blue color — a method of the Minor (see. Vegetative reflexes ); a research of drops of P. by means of a magnifying glass (e.g., on small pillows of a paw of a cat), in a reflected light, and also by means of a so-called plastic method. Potootdelitelny function of separate gland is studied by introduction of a capillary tube to its channel. Collect P. for the chemical analysis or determination of its quantity in the most various ways — conclude an extremity in an impenetrable bag, fix the small potopriyemny camera on skin. For P.'s receiving from all body surface of the examinee place in a bathtub with warm water (t ° apprx. 37 — 38 °) or in the air-tight camera. See also Sweat glands , Sweating .

Sweat in the medicolegal relation

Sweat and its traces are an object medicolegal examinations (see) in need of establishment (at investigation of criminal cases) accessories of articles of clothing and footwear to a certain person, and also group accessory of the person, the missing person. For this purpose determine the fact of presence of P. on the studied object, its specific and group accessory. As approximate test by searches of hardly noticeable spots, suspicious on P.'s presence, use the phenomenon of whitish or bluish fluorescence of P. after its radiation by UV rays. P.'s presence in spots is reliable establish on high concentration of amino acid of serine in them. This way it is possible to find P. as in the spots isolated, and mixed with blood. P.'s detection on material evidences shall be followed always for control by the corresponding research of the same pieces on weight from the site of the subject carrier located in close proximity to the studied spot and from a notorious spot of the Item. Definition of specific accessory of P. is made by means of reaction of the passer immunoelectrophoresis (see), group accessory — reactions of absorption — elution and the mixed agglutination by analogy with definition blood groups (see); in the latter case it is necessary to consider that approximately at 20% of people antigens in allocations are not defined (so-called not highlighters). Group antigens in P. qualitatively always correspond to a blood group of the inspected person.

Bibliography: Barsegyants L. O. and Levchenkov B. D. Forensic medical examination of allocations of an organism, page 78, M., 1978; Kalantayesk I am K. A. Morfologiya and Cauchy's physiology of the person, Kiev, 1972; Kuno Ya. Perspiration at the person, the lane with English, M., 1961; S t ii t t g e n G. Die normale und pathologische Physiologie der Haut, Jena, 1965. See also bibliogr, to St. Sweating .

M. S. Vovsi; V. V. Tomilin (court.).