SWAZILAND, the Kingdom of Swaziland — the state in the south of Africa. Borders on the Republic of South Africa and Mozambique. The area is 17,4 thousand km 2 . The population — 560 thousand people (1980, assessment). The capital — Mbabane (22,4 thousand zhit., 1976). The country is divided into 4 administrative districts. Ofits. languages — also take English.
Page — constitutional monarchy, the head of state — the king. The legislature belongs to the king and the parliament consisting of National assembly and the senate.
A relief of the country — the plateau which is going down to V. and passing into the coastal valley of Mozambique with three steps from 20 to 80 km wide: High Veld (height above sea-level 1500 — 1000 .it), Average Veld (800 — 400 m) and Low Veld (300 — 150 m).
Climate — transitional from subtropical to tropical, with wet summer. Valleys of many rivers are boggy. Vegetation — the typical savanna.
The village — developing country. Fundamentals of its economy are agriculture and the mining industry. Corn, an ambercane, a sugarcane, rice, a cotton are grown up. There are artificial afforestations. The mining industry is based on development of fields of asbestos, iron ore, black coal. There are plants on processing of wood, a sugarcane.
Page it is connected by currency and customs agreements with the Republic of South Africa. At the same time the aspiration to development of cooperation with the independent African states is noted.
The population of the country for 98% consists of the African people speaking languages to a bow — take (St. 80%) and the Zulu. Also several thousands of Europeans live in the country. Part of indigenous people works on farms and plantations of Europeans or is operated on hard work in the Republic of South Africa. Average population density 32 people on 1 sq.km.
On the materials published in editions of WHO, in 1975 — 1980 vital rates (for 1000 the population): birth rate 46,9, general mortality 19,0, natural increase 27,9. Child mortality (1979) 168 on 1000 live-born. In 1970 — 1975 the average duration of the forthcoming life made for men 41,8 years, for women of 45,0 years.
In 1971 tuberculosis, intestinal infections, accidents and poisonings, cardiovascular diseases would be the main reasons for death in.
Among the African population infectious and parasitic diseases, including intestinal infections, malaria, a viral hepatitis, tuberculosis, a leprosy, veins prevail. diseases, brucellosis, helminthic invasions. Urinogenital and intestinal shistosomatoz are eurysynusic, especially among the population Low and Average In ate yes. The acute respiratory infections and diseases connected with insufficiency of food, hl are often noted. obr. kwasiorkor and pellagra.
In 1976 in the country there were 33 medical establishments on 1717 beds giving stationary help to the population (34,5 beds on 10 thousand population), including 7 state (987 beds), 19 private noncommercial (561 beds), 7 commercial (169 beds). From them 3 general-tsy (740 beds), 11 selskikhb-c (544 beds), 16 centers of health care (76 beds), tubercular-tsa (102 beds), psychiatric-tsa (225 beds) and 1-tsa for hron. patients (30 beds). Extra hospital help was given in out-patient departments of BC, and in rural areas also by the centers of health care. (The name and content of work of healthcare institutions of S. not completely corresponds to the concepts accepted in the USSR — see. Treatment and prevention facilities abroad .) There is one balneological resort of Ezulveni, to lay down. a factor to-rogo are low-mineralized bikarbonatnonatriyevy thermal waters.
In 1976 in the country 54 doctors (1,09 for 10 thousand population), 3 dentists, 690 nurses and midwifes, 210 assistants to the nurse and the midwife, 8 druggists worked. At the same time there are more than a half of doctors and nurses it is concentrated in two cities — Mbabane and Manzini.
Bibliography: BSE, 3rd prod., t. 23, Art. 49; Demographic yearbook 1978, p. 110, N. Y., 1979; Statistical yearbook 1977, p. 68, N. Y., 1978; World health statistics annual 1980, Vital statistics and causes of death, p. 2, Geneva, 1980.
V. V. Fedorov.