SVEDBERG Theodor (Svedberg Theodor, 1884 — 1971) — Swedish fizikokhimik, the Nobel Prize laureate (1926).
In 1907 ended un-t in Uppsale (Sweden). Since 1912 professor of physical chemistry. In 1931 — 1949 the director Ying-that physical chemistry, since 1949 the director Ying-that nuclear chemistry in Stockholm.
The main works of T. Svedberg are devoted to physical chemistry of colloids and polymers. He developed methods of preparation of colloid solutions of inorganic matters, with the help to-rykh experimentally confirmed the theory of Brownian motion of Einstein — Smolukhovsky (1906). It designed and constructed the first ultracentrifuges (1922) for overseeing by migration of macromolecules in solution under the influence of big centrifugal forces (in 100 thousand times exceeding gravity). During ultracentrifuging T. Svedberg suggested to use parameters of movement of macromolecules for determination of their sizes and a form. By means of ultracentrifuging to them it was shown that molecules of pure protein have the same size. It allowed to use a method of ultracentrifuging for identification of impurity. For these works T. Svedberg was conferred the Nobel Prize in chemistry. Ultracentrifuging is one of the most effective methods of allocation and a research of biologically important molecules (proteins, nucleinic to - t, etc.). The unit of coefficient is called a name of T. Svedberg sedimentations (see), and also the equation, with the help to-rogo it is possible to calculate the molecular weight (weight) according to determination of coefficients of sedimentation and diffusion.
Works: Die Existenz der Molekule, Lpz., 1912; Colloid chemistry, N. Y., 1924 (Russian lane, M., 1930); The ultracentrifuge, Oxford, 1940 (sovm. with Pedersen K. Lake).
Bibliography: Les Prix Nobel en 1926, p. 77, Stockholm, 1927.
I. M. Karmansky.