SUSHRUTA — great Old Indian doctor, one of originators Ayurveda (see). Years of life are definitely not determined, it is supposed that its activity proceeded at a turn of a new era.
Sushruta is a doctor the Encyclopaedist, it belonged to one of large schools of doctors of Ancient India — Dkhanvantari from Benares, its works (samkhit) — only of remained from this school. The physiophilosophical doctrine about so-called space elements of the world («Panch Makha») — air, water, the earth, fire, metals and three material beginnings, or substances of an organism is the cornerstone of its views (air, slime and bile). The condition of a human body, his health and diseases depends on a ratio and interaction of these substances, their forms and types. The principle of treatment is the equilibration of substances — Natus, harmony. In Sushruta's compositions it is reported about necropsies (method of maceration); it described 500 muscles, 300 bones, 107 joints, 700 blood vessels (hollow) and other body organs. Also rules of personal hygiene, a dietetics, St. 700 medicinal plants and pharmaceuticals of an animal and mineral origin, ways of their preparation and use are described. In the compositions it described many acute and chronic diseases, W. h gave symptoms of diseases, after become known as smallpox, cholera, an ugly face, diabetes, epilepsy. Gained special popularity of Sushrut as the outstanding surgeon of antiquity. More than 100 surgical instruments, various probes, silk and linen threads are mentioned in its works. It carried out 8 types of surgical interventions (incision, excision, scarification, aspiration, extraction, evacuation, sounding, sewing together), used straight and curve needles, applied a henbane and hashish as anesthetics. It described 14 forms of bandagings. It made amputations, laparotomies, lithotomies, plastic surgeries (in particular, the Indian way of rhinoplasty). In ayurveda there are descriptions of medical receptions in cases of difficult childbirth, Cesarean section, kraneo-and embryotomies, turn on a head and on a leg, etc. Sushruta reports about 72 types of diseases of eyes, describes operation of removal of a cataract; attribute it use of a magnet for removal of foreign bodys from an eye.
Bibliography: Borodulin F. R. History of medicine, M., 1961; History of medicine, under the editorship of B. D. Petrov, t. 1, with» 49, M., 1954; History of medicine, sost. S. Kovner, p.1, century 1, page 40, Kiev, 1878; Mangalik V. S. and Gupta N. P. Ancient Indian medicine and its contribution to the general theory of medicine, Owls. medical, No. 1, page 149, 1958.
Yu. P. Lisitsyn.