SURINAM, the Republic of Suriname — the state in the northeast of South America. The area is 163,3 thousand km 2 . Population of 349 thousand people (1981, assessment). The capital — Paramaribo (150 thousand zhit., 1981). In the administrative relation is divided into 9 districts. Ofits. language — Dutch.
According to the temporary constitution of 1982 the head of state is the president. Executive power belongs to the government. The supreme governmental body — the Leading center is founded.
Page it is located on Guiana Highlands. The climate is subequatorial, hot and wet. The woods borrow apprx. 90% of the territory of the country. There are large deposits of bauxites, fields of manganese ore, gold, oil, gas, iron ore and copper.
Page — the underdeveloped country with rather developed mining industry; the basis of the economy — ore mining industry and agriculture. Bauxite mining makes 10% of their world production (1974). Page - x. lands borrow less than 1% of the territory, a half of these lands — irrigated. The main page - x. culture — rice; cultivate also a sugarcane, bananas, a citrus. Manufacturing industry is presented by aluminum production, processing of page - x. raw materials, woodworking.
Indians (35,3%), Creoles (29,1%), Indonesians (14,9%), Blacks, Indians, Chinese, Europeans live in S. Children up to 15 years make 51,4% (1980). Apprx. 90% of the population lives in a coastal strip and valleys of the large rivers (3 — 4% of all territory); average population density 2,4 people on 1 sq.km (1980).
The natural movement of the population, on ofitsa. to the data published in editions of WHO in 1980 it was characterized by the following indicators (on 1000 people); birth rate 27,8; mortality 7,9; natural increase 19,9. Child mortality 39,2 on 1000 live-born (1980, assessment). The average duration of the forthcoming life in 1975 — 1980 made 67,2 years.
Infectious and parasitic diseases are widespread in the country. In 1977 it is registered apprx. 1 thousand cases of malaria. The schistosomatosis is endemic in the coastal district, in certain villages it struck more than 40% of inhabitants (1974); the leprosy is endemic. Are everywhere widespread veins. diseases. The frambeziya, tuberculosis, a typhoid and paratyphus, amoebic dysentery, diphtheria, poliomyelitis are registered. Among the main reasons for death (1976) there were diseases of cardiovascular system (652 cases), symptoms and is inexact the designated states (238 cases), diseases of a respiratory organs (189 cases), malignant new growths (146 cases), congenital anomalies, a birth trauma, the complicated childbirth and other reasons of perinatal incidence and mortality (226 cases), infectious and parasitic diseases (97 cases).
The Ministry of Labor and Health coordinates activity of public services of health care, the missionary organizations subsidized by the government and also private medical institutions. Min-in bears responsibility for preventive activity in all territory of the country and for treatment of indigenous people of a coastal strip. The medical missionary organizations render primary medical - a dignity. help to residents of internal districts of the country. One of the main directions in the field of health care — development and strengthening of services primary medical - a dignity. help and implementation of the program of insurance of health on a national scale.
In 1980 in S. 17 BCs on 3169 beds functioned (81,5 beds on 10 000 zhit.), including 10 state BCs on 2705 beds, 5 missionary — on 60 beds and 2 private — on 404 beds; among them there are 5 BCs of the general type on 12 190 beds, 8 medical centers on 229 beds, 1 rural hospital on 70 beds, tubercular-tsa on 46 beds, psychiatric on 600 beds and-tsa for recovering on 34 beds.
In 1975 extra hospital help was given in polyclinic departments of hospitals, in offices of private medical practitioners, 55 centers and on posts of health care, in 89 out-patient clinics and clinics and 13 other institutions (the centers for health protection of mother and the child, points of rehabilitation, psychiatric and dental surgery points and mobile medical groups); more than a half of extra medical institutions was located in the cities with the population of 20 thousand zhit. and more. The name and content of work of healthcare institutions of S. not completely correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see. Treatment and prevention facilities abroad ).
In 1978 in S. 214 doctors worked (5,8 doctors on 10 000 zhit.), 21 dentists, 15 druggists, 73 midwifes, 660 nurses (17,8 on 10 000 zhit.), 375 auxiliary nurses, 92 assistants to the druggist, 1 dignity. engineer, 158th dignity. etc.
Surinam un-that releases inspectors Medical f-t annually apprx. 20 doctors. Training of nurses is carried out in one state and two private schools; course of Z,5 of year.
Bibliography: The sixth review of a condition of health care in the world, 1973 — 1977, the p. 2, page 187, M., 1981.
E. V. Galakhov.