The SURGICAL FIELD MOBILE HOSPITAL (SFMH) — the military-medical medical institution of field army intended for rendering in field conditions to wounded and patients of the qualified surgical help and their treatment; during the strengthening by groups of specialized medical aid it was used as specialized hospital.
HPPG was created in December, 1942 by reorganization of field mobile hospitals (see). The hospital was expected 200 beds and incorporated management, two medical departments and divisions of service. Existence of transport allowed to put forward quickly hospital to the preset area, and the being available tent fund allowed to develop hospital in any conditions of the area.
Mobility and universality of HPPG gave the chance of their various use. In days of Great. Patriotic war of 1941 — 1945 depending on a situation of HG1PG performed the HPPG functions of the 1st line, all-surgical and specialized hospitals of a different profile preferential as a part of GB of armies, sometimes and: fronts.
HG1PG of the first line intended for strengthening of army medical service, were developed in the army area and carried out tasks of reception of the wounded arriving, as a rule, directly from G1MP (see. Regimental medical aid station), rendering the qualified surgical help in the volume which is carried out by the divisional first-aid post (DFAP), hospitalization nontransportable and treatments lightly wounded with the term of treatment to 10 days to them. According to the carried-out tasks the organization of work of HPPG of the first line a little what differed from the organization of work of DMP. These hospital by acceptance of a flow of wounded from PMP on themselves released DMP for further following behind the coming troops. Experience of HPPG of the first line in days of the Great Patriotic War showed that these hospital successfully coped with the tasks assigned to them.
In operating conditions of HPPG as a part of GB their activity was carried out in two directions: they performed functions of all-surgical or specialized hospital. In a nerve a case of HPPG rendered the qualified medical aid in full. For giving of functions of specialized hospital of HPPG amplified specialized groups of the separate company of medical strengthening (SCMS), at the same time the specialized surgical field mobile hospital (SSFMH) of three types were created: for wounded in the head, a neck and a backbone, for wounded in a breast, a stomach and a basin, for wounded in a hip and large adjacent joints.
All-surgical HPPG intended for rendering medical aid and treatment of wounded with the opened and closed fire fractures of bones of extremities and injuries of joints (except fractures of a femur, injuries of coxofemoral and knee joints), damages of the soft tissues and also burned and the patients needing the qualified surgical help.
SURGICAL FIELD PODVIZhNOI HOSPITAL 537
of Fig. 1. The schematic diagram of expansion (option) of specialized surgical field mobile hospital for struck in the head, a neck and a backbone in the period of the Great Patriotic War.
During the work of HPPG as all-surgical hospital in it the reception sorting room, the operating room, dressing, anaerobic, surgical and evacuation departments, X-ray department, laboratory, a drugstore and nek-ry other subsidiary divisions was developed. In the operating room preferential band operations were carried out. The wounded needing primary surgical treatment of wounds and burns, amputation, etc. went to a dressing room. Surgical departments whenever possible profiled, in them placed preferential nontransportable wounded, to-rykh after recovery of transportability transferred to evacuation departments. Lightly wounded with the term of treatment to 10 — 15 days cured in line-up of the team of recovering and returned in a system. Evacuation department separately placed nosilochny wounded, walking and sick a surgical profile. From evacuation department they were sent to GB of the front (see. Hospital base).
The scheme of expansion of all-surgical HPPG is similar to the scheme of expansion of DMG1, the specialized HPPG were developed according to the original schemes depending on the arriving contingents. So, SHPPG for wounded in the head, a neck and a backbone was created by giving to it neurosurgical, maxillofacial, ophthalmologic, otorino the laryngologic and radiological ORMU groups. This hospital had a task to accept, to render specialized medical aid and to organize treatment wounded in a skull, a neck, a backbone, with damages of large trunks of peripheral nerves to vossta-
a novleniya of their transportability and the subsequent evacuation.
Among the operations made in SHPPG for wounded in the head, the important place was taken by surgical treatment of wounds and a craniotrypesis. Considering. close anatomo-physiological ratios of bodies of the head that creates diagnostic difficulties, as a part of a reception sorting room developed a so-called diagnostic dressing room, in a cut specialists from all specified groups of strengthening worked. It allowed to organize constant mutual consultation, and also to perform simple surgeries directly in this dressing room. Leaving for wounded in various areas of the head has specific features that caused need of expansion of the pro-thinned-out hospital departments
staffed by specially prepared paramedical staff (see fig. 1).
SHPPG for wounded in a breast, a stomach and a basin was also created by giving of the corresponding groups of strengthening to it. A considerable part of struck came to similar hospital after the operative measures made in DMP or HPPG of the first line. However arrived also wounded, the Crimea owing to the developed fighting situation the qualified medical aid in the army area was not rendered. It caused need to operate them in this hospital. For this purpose in it developed two operating rooms — for thorax operations and stomach operations and a basin. For implementation of full postoperative treatment and leaving expansion of three hospital departments was provided: thoracic, abdominal and urological (see fig. 2).
SHPPG for wounded in a hip and large adjacent joints was created by giving surgical, competent of traumatology, and radiological groups. The wounded who came to such hospital represented very heavy category of struck. The smashed wounds with a big zone of defeat are fraught that carrying, bandaging and furthermore they sanitary cleaning of such wounded cause in them great sufferings. Such wounds often are complicated by shock and a mephitic gangrene. For implementation of full sanitary cleaning in combination with the subsequent operative measure at the maximum decrease in sufferings rendering specialized medical aid in such hospital was carried out on the following system (see fig. 3). From a reception such wounded came to the first dressing room where
Fig. 2. The schematic diagram of expansion (option) of specialized surgical field mobile hospital for struck in a breast, a stomach and a basin in the period of the Great Patriotic War.
after use of anesthesia, usually spinal, it undressed was stacked on a special travel orthopedic table. On the same table of the wounded transported to the sanitary inspection room where in connection with the come anesthesia an opportunity it carefully was created to wash up. Then it was transported in X-ray department and the second dressing room where delivered a x-ray film. Here surgical treatment of a wound was carried out, to a losla of what of the wounded transported in gipsovalnyu for imposing of a deaf plaster bandage, further in a hothouse where it was removed from a travel orthopedic table, stacked on a stretcher and left to a through cure of gypsum. As pain at the wounded was killed in the first dressing room, all subsequent procedures did not cause sufferings in it. In the presence of anaerobic complications such wounded went directly to anaerobic.
In the conditions of modern war in case of use by the opponent of weapons of mass destruction, first of all nuclear weapon (see), there will be a possibility of receipt in surgical hospital struck with the various fighting injuries combined by defeats (with? m) that will lead to expansion of the HPPG functions. In a crust, time the described hospital received the new name — the military field surgical hospital (MFSH).
See also Hospital military, Center of mass defeats, System of medical and evacuation providing.
Bibliography: Bases of the organization of medical support of troops, under the editorship of N. I. Zavalishin, M., 1961; Smirnov. I. Boyna and military medicine, 1939 — 1945, page 156, M., 1979.
I. P. Leads, G. P. Lobanov,
V. A. Zhuravsky.