From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SUPERVALUABLE IDEAS (synonym: the dominating ideas, the prevailing ideas, the fixed ideas) — the ideas, judgments arising under the influence of the valid circumstances, but thanks to an intensive affective saturation receiving in consciousness for a long time the prevailing situation which is not corresponding to their value.

Page and. began to study in connection with researches in the field of boundary psychiatry (see. Neurosises ) and the increased interest of psychiatrists in separate psikhopatol. to states.

K. Vernike (1892) allocated S. and. as psikhopatol. symptom.

Page and. — the frequent phenomenon both in pathology, and in ordinary life. Contents them is various. S. meet more often and. inventions, barratries, reformatorstvo, marital infidelity, the idea of hypochiondrial character, and also connected with material and family losses, personal moral shortcomings, commission of unseemly acts. In one cases of S. and. arise and receive the dominating character in the short terms estimated in the days and in the weeks; — develop in others gradually for several months and years. Created With. and. push aside other thoughts and representations, subordinating to themselves in various degree all mental life of an individual. They can be supplemented and extend according to contents, and also be exposed to systematization as at the expense of own, sometimes improbable, fiction, and at the expense of the new real, prejudicedly interpreted facts. The circumstances contradicting S. and., are ignored or are often treated as indirect demonstrations of legitimacy of their existence. It is long the existing and systematized S. and. are capable to cause emergence of the new valuable orientations affecting various parties of mental life (supervaluable outlook).

Page and. the changed affect in the form of a hypomania accompanies (see. Maniacal syndromes ) or subdepressions (see. Depressive syndromes ). Usually S. and. expansive contents (invention, a reformatorstvo) are followed by a hypomania, and hypochiondrial contents (connected with moral shortcomings or with different losses) — a sub depression. In one cases of S. and. (e.g., the ideas of a reformatorstvo, barratry, marital infidelity) exert considerable impact on behavior and quite often cause the conflicts — active S. and., in other cases (the idea of hypochiondrial character, a thought of commission of unseemly acts) there is only their processing in consciousness — passive S. and. Passive S.' group and. it is possible to designate as autistic (see. Schizophrenia ). During the weighting of a disease of S. and. can be replaced by others psikhopatol. frustration, first of all nonsense (see); at its easing S. and. can accept the nature of obsessions (see. Persuasive states ).

For emergence and the subsequent development of S. and., in addition to external circumstances, characterologic features and age of an individual, and also additional matter harm (intoxication, first of all alcoholic, overfatigue, intercurrent diseases, various organic diseases of a brain, first of all vascular damages and effects of craniocereberal injuries), to-rye, exhausting a nervous system, increase characterologic features of the personality. Usually at faces with tendency to education S. and. such lines as revaluation of the personality, persistence and obstinacy, categoricalness in judgments or, on the contrary, feeling of own inferiority, the increased vulnerability with tendency to linger on negative events, alarming suspiciousness, indecision, reduced activity are found; signs of mental are often observed infantility (see). All these features are characteristic of persons with paranoiac, epileptoidny, hysterical, schizoid and psychasthenic traits of character. Page and. meet at psychopathies (see), psychogenias (see), pathological development of the personality (see), at inertly proceeding schizophrenia, epilepsy (see), at effects of a craniocereberal injury, at remissions, when psikhopatol. frustration are defined by the psychopatholike and erased affective disturbances. In some cases S. and. are observed at persons with intellectual insufficiency (see. Oligophrenias ).

Page and. more often it is also more expressed arise at mature and advanced age when finally there was a character of the person. S. are characteristic of the pubertal period and. in shape dismorfofobiya (see), mental anorexias (see) and metaphysical intoxication (see. Schizophrenia ), to-rye reflect features psikhopatol. frustration of this age period.

The diagnosis is based on a combination of data a wedge, pictures and the anamnesis. Differential diagnosis of S. and. it is necessary to carry out with obsessions (see. Persuasive states). Most often it should be done at S. and. hypochiondrial contents. At obsessions of the patient, as a rule, to some extent confronts the available frustration, its critical attitude towards them is noted; at S. and. it protects the idea. From nonsense (see) S. and. differ in the fact that often by a razubezhdeniye it is possible to weaken for a while their intensity, even to achieve their disappearance or the critical attitude towards them. Unlike S.'s nonsense and. are clear according to contents and are closely connected with specific life situations, significant for an individual. However in some cases to carry out differential diagnosis between S. and. and nonsense extremely difficult. Page and. can arise in the corresponding conditions and at healthy faces. To distinguish such «normal» S. and. from arisen on patol. to the soil, first of all at psychopathies, quite often difficult.

For treatments it is recommended psychotherapy (see) in combination with neuroleptics (see), antidepressants (see) and proofreaders of behavior (e.g., neyleptit).

Forecast for recovery favorable. When S. and. arise against the background of the prolonged psychogenia, psychopathies and pathological development of the personality and are exposed clear psi-hol. to processing, i.e. accept the nature of outlook, the forecast adverse.

Bibliography: Kovalyov V. V. Supervaluable educations and their role in psychopathology of children's age, Shurn. neuropath, and psikhiat., t. 74, century 10, page 1519,1974, bibliogr.; V. M. K frosts to a question of the supervaluable ideas, Works psikhiat. wedge. 1st Mosk. medical in-that, century 4, page 338, M. — L., 1934; Stepanova JI. N. Sverkhtsennye and nonsense zy educations at psychopathies, Saturday. works Center, nauch. - issled. in-that court. psikhiat. of V. P. Serbian, page 53, M., 1969; F r e y e r about in O. E. Psychopathies in practice of forensic-psychiatric examination, in book: Vopr. court. psikhiat., under the editorship of G. V. Morozov, page 73, M., 1965; O.'s Round of Lehrbuch der Geis-teskrankheiten, Miinchen, 1924; Handbuch der Geisteskrankheiten, hrsg. v. O. Vitke, Bd 2, B., 1928; Wernicke C. t)ber fixe Ideen, Dtscli. med. Wschr., S. 581, 1892.

H. G. Shumsky.