From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SUNG YAT-SENG (Put Yat-sen, Put I-syan, Put Zhong-shan, Put Wen; 1866 — 1925) — the Chinese democrat revolutionary and the statesman, the doctor by training.


In 1892 ended medical in-t in Hong Kong, having been entitled the doctor-surgeon. He was the first Chinese who got the European medical education. Throughout two years Sung Yat-seng worked in the Chinese hospital in Macau (the Portuguese concession in China) and was closely connected with the secret political organizations setting as the purpose overthrow of the monarchy. Sung Yat-seng soon began to figure at revolutionary movement. The Portuguese authorities prohibited it to work in hospital. In 1894 he created the revolutionary organization Xingzhonghui which undertook on October 25, 1895 the armed performance against a Manchurian dynasty Qing, a cut was suppressed. Sung Yat-seng forced to emigrate actively develops plans of preparation of new revolts. In 1905 in Tokyo it created the mass revolutionary organization Tongmenghui. Its revolutionary-democratic program was highly appreciated by V. I. Lenin, at the same time he criticized the narodnichesky provisions which were contained in it. For 1905 — 1911 of Tongmenghui, the leading Sung Yat-sengom, organized several large armed revolts. Victorious revolution of 1911 — 1912 overthrew the monarchy, proclaimed the Republic of China. In 1911 Sung Yat-seng was elected it the first president. However the Chinese democracy led by Sung Yat-sengom did not manage to mobilize and organize broad masses of the people during the revolution, to put forward and put into practice the consecutive anti-imperialist and anti-feudal program. Due to the seizure of power by supporters of reaction Sung Yat-seng was forced to refuse a post of the president. In 1912 with party creation of Kuomintang Sung Yat-seng became its chairman. Being from 1913 to 1916 in emigration in Japan, Sung Yat-seng continued fight against reaction and a foreign imperialism. In 1917 he welcomed Great October socialist revolution in Russia and wrote about need of friendship between the Chinese and Soviet republics. Calling for creation of the national front of fight for independence and democratization of the country, Sung Yat-seng actively supported cooperation of the party of Kuomintang run by it with the Communist Party of China.

At the beginning of the 20th he headed armed struggle with the Chinese militarists in the south of China, directed the revolutionary government of the Southern China.

Sung Yat-seng — one of outstanding revolutionary doctors. He headed fight of the Chinese people for social and national release against the international imperialism and colonialism. Put forward by it «three national the principle» according to the contents along with political had large social and hygienic value. Transformation of Kuomintang after death Sung Yat-senga in counterrevolutionary party led to elimination of revolutionary gains in China for many years.

Works: Notes of the Chinese revolutionary, the lane with kitaysk., M. — L., 1926; The Chosen works, the lane with kitaysk., M., 1964.

Bibliogr.: Lenin V. I. Fight of parties in China, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 23, page 138; Lenin V. I. Democracy and populism in China, in the same place, t. 21, page 400; Lenin V. I. The updated China, in the same place, t. 22, page 189; Yefimov G. V. Put Yat-sen, Search of a way, 1914 — 1922, M., 1981, bibliogr.; Put Yat-sen to 1866 — 1966, K century since birth, under the editorship of S. L. Tikhvinsky, M., 1966.