SUMMER CAMP — the out-of-school educational and recreational establishment for pioneers and school students (from 7 to 15 years) functioning generally on summer and winter vacation. Item of l. provides a continuity, succession and the sequence of the teaching and educational process which is carried out by school, the Komsomol and pioneer organizations; actively promotes improvement, physical tempering of children. Carried out to P. by l. educational work is combined with use of natural factors and a day regimen, including occupations tourism and sport.
In 1922 at recreation facilities of workers for the first time began to create recreational groups of children, «summer schools» — P.'s prototype of l appeared. In 1925 in the Crimea the first P. of l opened. — Artek (see), become a children's health resort of all-union value. In 1940 in P. of l. the countries already St. 1 million pupils had a rest.
The Soviet government, the CPSU, labor unions and Komsomol constantly pay attention to further development of P. of l.: their construction is conducted, the material resources are improved, types P. of l became more various. In the summer of 1979 in 54 thousand stationary P. of l. and camps of work and rest were visited by 13 million children.
so-called summer country P. are among l. labor unions. In them children whose parents consist in one labor union have a rest or work at one enterprise. In 1979 in the country 10,8 thousand country P. of l functioned. labor unions. In them have a rest and St. 7 million children strengthened the health. Country P. of l. place in the dry area, near green arrays and the rivers, in a distance from noisy passable roads, the industrial enterprises, in safe places in the epidemic relation.
For children with the weakened health and some hron, diseases will organize year-round or seasonal specialized P. by l. sanatorium type, the countries located in optimum climatic zones. In them profound scheduled, medical and recreational maintenance is conducted. In P. of l. work both pediatricians, and doctors of other specialties according to a profile P. of l. and depending on the state of health of children. In 1979 in P. of l. this type it was treated apprx. 600 thousand children. The largest children's health resort of year-round type is the «Pearl of Russia» located in the resort town of Anapa of Krasnodar Krai, in it undergo treatment at the same time apprx. 2 thousand children.
7 — the 9th classes camps of work and rest enjoy wide popularity at pupils, to-rye will be organized for city school students on the basis of state farms and collective farms. In them feasible work is skillfully combined with active forms of rest, sport. From 1975 to 1979 their number grew by 4,5 thousand and reached 27,8 thousand; for 1979 they were visited by 2,8 million children.
Rural school students spend the vacation in collective-farm and intercollective-farm P. of l., which number in 1979 made St. 4 thousand.
For the children remaining for the summer in the cities and working settlements, bodies of national education together with the Komsomol and trade-union organizations create on the basis of schools, out-of-school institutions, parks etc. city P. of l. and summer playgrounds with food and day rest. In 1979 in them the St. 7 million children of younger and middle school age has a rest.
Various profile P.' number of l grows., in which the pupils who are carried away by any type of activity have a rest. It is P. l. young seamen, geologists, tourists, athletes, etc. In them rest is combined with occupation favourite business. E.g., in 1979 in such P. of l. has a rest young technicians of St. 70 thousand, young tourists of St. 200 thousand, young naturalists of St. 60 thousand.
Optimal conditions for ideological and political, labor, esthetic and moral education, and also physical development, strengthening of health of children and teenagers are created in year-round P. by l., the All-Union Leninist Young Communist Leagues which are under authority. It is the All-Union children's health resort Artek of V. N. Lenin (see Artek), and also republican «Eaglet» (RSFSR), Young Guard (USSR), Zubrenok (BSSR), Arevik (Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic), etc. On the means received from communistic community work days large P. of l is under construction. The Central Committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League «Ocean» for children of Siberia and the Far East. In these P. of l. comprehensive schools, wide network of circles function, to lay down. - the prof. the centers in which highly qualified specialists work.
Experience of activity of P. of l. this type it is widely used at P.'s construction by l. in a number of the socialist countries (in Bulgaria — Ravda, GDR — of Wilhelm Pik, the Mongolian People's Republic — Naryamdal, Hungary — Zanka, etc.).
Fruitful influence on P.'s development by l. rendered resolutions of the Central Committee of the CPSU «About the 50 anniversary of the All-Union pioneer organization of V. I. Lenin» (1972), «About measures for further improvement of the organization of rest of pioneers and school students» (1974), the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About measures for further improvement of national health care» (1977). Further development of institutions of summer holiday, P. is provided by l in resolutions. all types and especially recreational and labor, and also sanatorium type. Item of l. shall be constructed by each enterprise numbering in the structure 1500 and more working.
In P. of l. the medical office, the insulator at the rate of 2 — 3 beds on each 100 children is provided. Item of l. opens only with the permission of SES. On the child sent to P. to l., the medical reference in which the information on the state of health (is supplied see is filled in. Prenatal record ), and also the certificate of absence inf is submitted. diseases at the place of residence and the place of study. Service personnel before departure in P. of l. it is obliged to undergo medical inspection.
Heavy responsibility in P. of l. the doctor and paramedical staff bear. On the arrival of children in P. of l. they carry out medical examinations, define the mode for each age group and distribute children on medical groups for exercises, perform treatment of those who need it, control cooking and quality of drinking water, daily watch for a dignity. - a gigabyte. P.'s condition of l. and respect by children of norms and rules of personal hygiene, will organize bathing and a hardening, accompany children in campaigns and excursions, carry out a dignity. - a gleam, work among P.'s personnel of l., parents and children.
In our country everything becomes to provide the requirement of the Program of the CPSU to satisfy needs of all children for P. of l in practice.
Bibliography: Vendel S. M. Medical support of summer camps, JI., 1979; The Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU «About measures for further improvement of the organization of rest of pioneers and school students», on April 30, 1974, in book: The reference book of school desks, the worker, under the editorship of K. M. Bogolyubov, etc., century 15, page 313, M., 1975.
Yu. V. Burakov.