SULPHATES — normal (normal) salts of sulphuric acid (inorganic sulfates) and sulphuric acid ethers with various aromatic and aliphatic alcohol (organic sulfates). Acid salts sulphuric acid (see) call bisulphates or hydrosulphates. In chemical and biochemical literature the term «sulphate» designate anion a chamois to - you are SO 4 2- . The pages of copper, iron, zinc and nek-ry other metals containing crystal water are called vitriols: CuSO 4 - 5H 2 O (copper vitriol), FeSO 4 7H 2 O (green vitriol), etc. In a metabolism at the person S. play an essential role. The sulphated glikozaminglikana — chondroitin - (see. Chondroitinsulphuric acids ), dermatan-, keratansulfata, heparin (see) and geparansulfat are structural components intercellular substance (see), take part in processes of intercellular interaction, cellular immunity, proliferation and a differentiation of cells, membrane reception, and also regulation of a blood coagulation. Sulfatides (see) participate in creation of cellular and subcellular membranes, in particular a myelin. A steroid sulfates are intermediate products of exchange of steroids (see) and important components of membranes spermatozoa (see). Formation of water-soluble conjugates with S. represents one of ways of a detoxication of xenobiotics and endogenous toxic connections (e.g., phenols) in a liver of the person and animals. Pages found broad application in medicine as the pharmaceuticals used for sedative and dehydrational therapy — magnesium sulfate (see. Magnesium, drugs ), as the drugs possessing laxative and cholagogue action — the magnesium sulfate and sodium sulfate (see Sodium sulfate) knitting and antiseptic agents — copper sulfates and zinc (see. Copper, drugs ; Zinc, drugs ). Heparin is widely used as anticoagulant.
Ammonium sulfate (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 apply in biochemical researches and pharmaceutical industry to differential sedimentation — salting-out (see) — individual proteins from the solutions containing mix of several proteins. So receive drugs of enzymes and proteinaceous and peptide hormones.
The page possesses an important role in a circulation are gray (see).
Inorganic and organic S. are eurysynusic in the nature. Plants and nek-ry microorganisms have unique ability to S.'s recovery and their subsequent use for synthesis of sulfur-containing amino acids (see). This process at plants is closely accompanied by photosynthesis (see). In a human body and animals replaceable sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and cystine and irreplaceable sulfur-containing amino acid methionine, and also gomotsistein and taurine are exposed to splitting with formation of the oxidized compounds of sulfur (in the beginning sulfites, and then S.) under the influence of enzyme of a sulfitoksidaza (KF 184.108.40.206). Other way of oxidation of sulfites to S. is found in microorganisms with participation adenosine-5 '-fosfosulfa-treduktazy and ATF-sulfurilazy (sulfate — adenililtransferaza; KF 220.127.116.11).
The blood plasma of the person normal contains 0,4 — 0,6 moths of sulfates in 1 l (on average 0,5 mmol/l). Inorganic S. in a small amount come to a human body with food, and also hl are formed. obr. in the course of a metabolism in the organism as a result of a catabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids and at organic S.' disintegration under the influence of the corresponding sulphatases (see). S. preferential with urine where normal their concentration makes 25 — 45 mmol/l are removed. Inorganic S. and their ethers — staples of metabolism of sulfur in a human body. In the form of inorganic S. with urine in days from 0,6 to 1,8 g of sulfur can be removed, and in the form of organic sulfates — 0,06 — 0,2 g are gray in days. S. which remained in an organism actively enter metabolism. As inorganic S. are thermodynamic stable chemical connections, their involvement in a metabolism is preceded by the activation consisting in formation of so-called active sulfate from inorganic sulfates and ATP:
where F N — inorganic phosphate, and F N pyrophosphate. Angidridny communication between S and R atoms in AFS (adenosine-5 '-phosphosulphate) and FAFS (the 3rd '-phosphoadenosine-5 '-phospho-sulfate) has character of an energy-rich bond (see. Vysokoergichesky connections ), what provides a possibility of inclusion of S. in metabolic reactions. The activated forms of FAFS and AFS sulfates (in plants and seaweed) are sources of the sulforadio groups postponed in the presence of sulfotransferases for the corresponding acceptors (sugar, phenols, steroids, etc.) in the course of biosynthesis of glikozaminglikan (see. Mucopolysaccharides ), sulfatides, etc.
Methods of definition of inorganic S. in blood serum are based on S.'s sedimentation by solution of benzidine and quantitative titration by solution of caustic soda.
In medical literature there are publications indicating existence of the hereditary disease which is genetically caused by insufficiency or total absence in a liver and kidneys of the enzymes participating in S.'s exchange, in particular the sulfitoksidaza catalyzing transformation of sulfites into sulfates. The disease is characterized by the defeat of a nervous system increased by the content in urine S - sulfo - L - tsistei - on, sulfite and thiosulphite and noticeable reduced removal of inorganic Page. Sick children perish at early age (till 1 year). Nek-ry types of mukopolisakharidoz (see. Glikozidoza ) are connected with insufficiency of certain sulphatases.
Bibliography: Whyte A., etc. Fundamentals of biochemistry, the lane with English, t. 1, page 110, etc., M., 1981; Young JI. and M about at D. Metabolism of compounds of sulfur, the lane with English, M., 1961; Farooqui A. A. Metabolism of sulfolipids in mammalian tissues, Advanc. Lipid Res., v. 18, p. 159, 1981; T r u d i n-ger P. A. a. LoughlinR. E. Metabolism of simple sulfur compounds, in book: Comprehensive biochem., ed. by A. Neuberger, v. 19A, p. 165, Amsterdam a. o., 1981; Wissenschaftliche Tabellen Gels' y, hrsg. v. A. G. Geigy, S. 55, Basel, 1977, S. 80, 1979.
I. Ya. Kon, V. A. Tutelyan.