SULFUR (Sulfur, S) — chemical element VI of group of a periodic system of D. I. Mendeleyev, belongs to biogenic chemical elements, i.e. constantly is a part of live organisms and plays an important role in a metabolism. In S.'s medicine it is used as medicine, in agriculture — for pest control and diseases of plants, in the industry it is applied in organic synthesis, in production of explosive substances, rubbers, synthetic fibers, matches, etc. Radioisotopes C. use in a medico-biol. researches. Elementary S.'s dust can represent professional harm for the persons working in sulfuric mines.
For page it is known to people from an extreme antiquity. In practical its purposes began to apply since 16 — 17 centuries BC to preparation of paints, cosmetics, whitenings of fabrics and in medicine.
Crust contains 5•10 - 2 % are gray, in sea water of 0,08 — 0,09%. Seurat and its connections are a part of nek-ry microorganisms and practically all vegetable and animal organisms. At the person and animals especially many S. contains in a keratin of hair and wool, in fabrics of a nervous system, cartilages, bones, in bile. In blood of the person so-called organic S.'s concentration is normal, i.e. the sulfur which is a part of organic compounds makes apprx. 1 mg / 100 ml.
In S.'s nature is as in a stand-at-ease (native S.), and in the form of organic and inorganic compounds. Native S. meets in sulfur ores of a sedimentary origin. In volcanic districts free S. is found in the form of sublimates. In small amounts it contains in water of hot mineral springs (see. Sulfide waters ), where elementary S. is formed as a result of oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (see). The page is a part of sulfur-containing amino acids (see) — cysteine (see), cystine, methionine (see), sulphated mucopolysaccharides (see) — geparan-, dermatan-and hondroitinsulfat, biologically active agents — KOA, thiamin (see), biotin (see), lipoic acid (see), taurine (see), separate antibiotics (see). Active centers of molecules of many enzymes (see) include the sulphhydryl groups (see) which are of great importance for many enzymatic reactions proceeding in an organism. They participate in creation and stabilization of native three-dimensional structure of proteins, and in nek-ry cases — directly in functioning of the catalytic centers of enzymes. Believe that S.'s maintenance in proteins fluctuates from 0,8 to 2,4%.
In chemically connected type of S. is a part of various minerals, to-rye divide into two groups — sulphurous and sulfuric. From sulfur-bearing minerals the greatest value have FeS pyrite 2 , ZnS blende, a galenite, or PbS galena, from sulfuric — CaSO anhydrite 4 , gypsum (see), glauber salt, or Na mirabilite 2 SO 4 • 10H 2 O. Sulfur is present also at coals, slates, natural gas, oil, etc.
Sequence number of sulfur 16, atomic weight (weight) 32,064. At a usual temperature of S. represents solid matter of yellow color, at fall of temperature of S. brightens. There are crystal and amorphous modifications S. Naiboley are studied rhombic sulfur (S) steady to 95,6 °, and monoklinny sulfur (Sp) steady at 95,6 — 119,3 ° and passing at 119,3 ° into liquid sulfur (S λ ). The firm S.'s density of various modifications at 20 ° fluctuates from 1,92 to 2,07 g/cm 3 , liquid S.'s density makes 1,7988 g/cm3 (at 125 °) and 1,7784 g/cm 3 (at 150 °). Temperature of melting of S. changes depending on preliminary heat treatment and fluctuates ranging from 106,8 ° to 112 °; with temperature increase S.'s ability to melt strongly increases, and then sharply falls; t kip 444,6 °. Sulfur very bad conductor of electric current, in all firm and liquid conditions of S. of a diamagnitn. S.'s viscosity is one of sharply expressed its abnormal properties: with temperature increase it strongly increases, and then sharply decreases. These transitions of viscosity of S. are explained by a structure of its molecules: at usual conditions eight-atomic ring molecules C. during the heating are broken off and pass into open chains, heating higher than 190 ° leads to bystry shortening of such chains.
The page has 4 stable isotopes with mass numbers 32 (95,02%), 33 (0,75%), 34 (4,21%) and 36 (0,02%) and 6 radioisotopes with mass numbers 29, 30, 31, 35, 37 and 38. Four radioactive isotope C. — ultrashort-lived, with half-lives from fractions of a second up to 5 min. In a medico-biol. researches apply isotopes 35S (half-life of 87,4 days) and 38 S (half-life of 180 min.).
35 S usually receive in the nuclear reactor radiation of chlorine thermal neutrons on reaction 36C1 (n, p) 35S; for this purpose apply also radiation 37Cl protons or deuterons in a particle accelerator. For receiving 38S the target with chlorine is irradiated with alpha particles, using reaction 37C1 (and, 3 p) 38S.
35 S breaks up with a beta radiation of small energy (E beta - 167,47 kev), without the accompanying gamma radiation. 38S breaks up with emission of a multicomponent beta range (see. Isotopes ), to-rogo the maximum energy of ER, equal 1 Mev (84%) and 3 Mev (12%) have the main components. Disintegration is followed by gamma radiation with energy of E scale , equal 1,75 (2,5%), 1,94 (84%) and 2,75 Mev (1,6%).
The industry tens of inorganic and organic compounds, marked radioisotopes C., in hl are produced. obr. 35S. For a wedge, researches abroad apply sodium sulfate, marked 35S, without carrier, in isotonic solution. This isotope belongs to isotopes of average group of radio toxicity.
Minimum significant activity in a workplace which is not demanding registration or obtaining permission of bodies of the State sanitary inspection is equal 10 mkkyur (370 kBq).
In connections C. shows valency from — 2 to +6. It is reactive and directly connects almost to all elements, except nitrogen, iodine, gold, platinum and inert gases. At the room temperature of S. in the wet environment poorly is oxidized with formation of SO sulphurous anhydride 2 or sulphuric acid (see). Mix of vapors C. and oxygen is explosive. Halogens, except iodine, directly connect to S., at 150 — 200 ° she directly unites also to hydrogen, forming hydrogen sulfide. With carbon C. reacts at 800 — 900 °C education carbon sulfur (see). The melted S. reacts with oxides of alkali metals with formation of sulfides, sulfites and sulfates (see).
Elementary S. is received from native ores, and also oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and recovery of sulphurous anhydride.
The most widespread method of definition of S. is its transfer in a form of soluble sulfates with the subsequent sedimentation of SO anions 4 2- solution of BaCl barium chloride from subacidic solution during the heating in the form of a deposit of BaSO 4 . Sulfur can be emitted from various substrates with calcinating them in the electric furnace in current of oxygen, the formed SO dioxide 2 catch and define titrimetric with iodine. There is a number of titrimetric methods of definition of Page. Organic compounds C. decompose oxidation or recovery and allocate S. in the form of oxides (sulfates) or hydrogen sulfide (sulfides). The analysis is finished colorimetric (see. Colorimetry ), or titrimetric (see. Titrimetric analysis ).
(Preferential bivalent) comes to a human body of S. with food. In the course of a metabolism it passes into more oxidized state, end products of this process are sulfates, to-rye in a liver neutralize toxic products of metabolism — phenols (see), skatole (see), etc. Out of S.'s organism it is brought with urine and a stake.
Organic compounds C. carry out in an organism important biol. functions, however for many connections C. these functions are not found out up to the end yet. So, cysteine (see) and glutathione (see) are the limiting factors in regulation of biosynthesis in melanocytes of pigments of various type. Oryzamin (thiamin) in the form of thiamine pyrophosphate performs functions of a coenzyme at different types of decarboxylation (see). Sulfur-containing vitamin — biotin (see) — contains in an organism in such connections as biotineulfoksid and the E-N-биотинил-L-lysine, and as assume, participates in metabolism of one-carbon fragments in fabrics. Intensively investigate a functional role in an organism of taurine — natural sulfonic to - you. Believe that, except participation in formation of pair bile acids (see), it plays a part in processes of osmoregulation and stabilization biol. membranes, participates in maintenance of structural integration of a retina, especially in photoreceptor cells, and also is a neurotransmitter or the neuromodulator. In an experiment it is shown that deficit of taurine leads to dystrophy of a retina and to a blindness.
Elemental sulfur has no the expressed toxic properties, but its many connections (carbon sulfur, hydrogen sulfide, etc.) are very poisonous. Toxic effect of dust C. is very weak; acute poisonings are excluded. However at long inhalation of dust of elementary S. development of a sulphopneumoconiosis is possible (see. Pneumoconiosis ). Sometimes note irritation of a mucous membrane of respiratory tracts, gastritises, a tendency to decrease in the ABP, bystry fatigue, irritability, headaches, a bad dream, unpleasant feelings in heart. Conjunctivitis is frequent (see), vegetative and vegetovascular disturbances, In blood the content of glutathione decreases, the leukocytosis and a monocytosis is noted. There are data on changes of bones of a skull (frontal, parietal bones and bones of a base of skull), inflammatory diseases of adnexal bosoms of a nose that as believe, is a consequence of disbolism, in particular organic and inorganic S. Izredk powdery S. can cause ratios eczema (see). In all specified cases the contact with S. shall be immediately stopped. Symptomatic treatment.
Measures of prevention
During the work in sulfuric mines or in rooms in the conditions of air pollution elementary S.'s dust needs to use respirators (see), gloves, overalls (see. Clothes special ). After the end of change the warm gigabyte is obligatory. shower. Working at productions in contact with elementary S. the diet, protein-rich is recommended. All works on production and S.'s processing, its packaging, and unloading shall be mechanized. The received S. is exposed to obligatory cleaning of arsenous connections.
Maximum allowable concentration of elementary S. in air of a working zone of 2 mg/m3.
Drugs are gray
usually carry the pharmaceuticals containing elementary S., edges in itself in pharmakol To the drugs C. used in medical practice. the relation it is almost inactive. However at elementary S.'s interaction with nek-ry organic matters in an organism the connections possessing defined pharmakol are formed. effect. So, at elementary S.'s drawing on skin sulfides and pentathionic to - that H are formed 2 S 5 O 6 , to-rye have antimicrobic and antiparasitic effect. Sulfides, besides, have keratoplastichesky properties.
After intake the most part of elementary S. is allocated from went. - kish. a path in not changed look, a part it (10 — 40% of the accepted dose) turns in intestines into sulfides and hydrogen sulfide, to-rye irritate a mucous membrane of intestines, strengthen its peristaltics and as a result cause laxative effect. The sulfides which are formed in intestines partially are soaked up in blood. The most part of the soaked-up sulfides turns into sulfates, to-rye are allocated from an organism through kidneys. The sulfides which remained in not changed look are removed from an organism with then and expired air.
As elementary S.'s drugs in medical practice use the sulfur purified and the sulfur besieged.
Sulfur cleared (Sulfur depuratum) represents flour of citreous color, water soluble and a little ether-soluble.
Appoint inside, intramusculary and outwardly. Inside the sulfur purified is applied by hl. obr. as a purgative, appointing it adult from 0,5 to 3 g to reception. As a purgative cleared is gray it is used also as a part of powder of a licorice root of complex (Pulvis Glycyrrhizae compositus).
Sometimes the sulfur purified is applied inside as a helminthicide at an enterobiosis. For this purpose the sulfur purified is used in pure form or in mix (1:1) with powder of a licorice root complex (Pulvis Glycyrrhizae compositus). Appoint inside during food the adult 0,8 — 1 g to reception 3 times a day courses for 5 days (with breaks between courses for 4 days). In total carry out 3 — 5 courses of treatment. In days of breaks between courses for the night give enemas with Natrii hydrocarbonas (from calculation on 1/2 chayn. spoons on a glass of water). To children drug is appointed according to the same scheme in a single dose from calculation for 0,05 g to a year of life.
Intramusculary 1 — 2% sterile solutions are gray cleared in peach-kernel oil apply to the pyrogenic therapy (e.g., at syphilis). Solutions enter 0,5 — 2 ml since a dose and gradually increase it. Before introduction solutions are gray besieged warm up. For reduction of morbidity it is previously possible to enter 1 — 2 ml of 2% of solution of novocaine into the area of an injection.
Outwardly the sulfur purified is appointed in the form of 5 — 10 — 20% of ointments and powders for treatment of psoriasis, a sycosis, seborrhea, itch and other diseases of skin. For external use release also ready dosage forms containing the sulfur purified napr, Vilkinson's ointment (see Viljkinson ointment), ointment sulfur-naftalannuyu, paste of sulfurs - but-tsinko-naftalannuyu and paste salicylic sulfur-zinc.
Ointment sulfur-naftalannaya (Unguentum Naphthalani sulfuratum) the soder - * zhit ointments of naftalanny 2 h and the sulfur purified 1 h. Form of release: in banks on 30 g.
Paste serno-tsinko-naftalanny (Pasta Zinci-naphthalani sulfurata) contains ointments of naftalanny 4 h, Zinci oxydum and starch on 2 h, are gray cleared 1 h. Form of release: in banks on 25 g.
Paste salicylic sulfur-zinc contains to - you salicylic 0,6 g, pastes of zinc 20 g are gray cleared 5 g.
Sulfur besieged (Sulfur praecipitatum; GFH) represents the smallest inodorous amorphous pale yellow powder. It is almost water-insoluble, we will dissolve at boiling in mix from 20 h caustic liquor and 25 parts of 95% of alcohol, and also in 100 h fatty oils during the heating on the water bath.
The sulfur besieged is applied only outwardly in the form of 5 — 10 — 20% of ointments and powders. Indications to use same, as at use of the sulfur purified (at seborrhea, psoriasis, a sycosis and other diseases of skin).
With the same purpose use simple official Unguentum sulfuratum (Unguentum sulfuratum simplex) containing sulfurs of the besieged 1 h and jellied emulsion of vaseline in water of 2 h.
It must be kept in mind that it is impossible to appoint the sulfur besieged inside instead of the sulfur purified since in intestines significant amounts of hydrogen sulfide are formed of the sulfur besieged quickly, at absorption to-rogo there can be a headache, nausea, excitement and other symptoms of intoxication hydrogen sulfide (see).
Bibliography: Asatiani V. S. New methods of biochemical photometry, page 468, M., 1965; Berezov T. T. and Korovkin B. F. Biological chemistry, M., 1982; Harmful substances in the industry, under the editorship of N. V. Lazarev and I. D. Gadaskina, t. 3, page 49, L., 1977; Glinka N. L. General chemistry, page 381, L., 1973; Levin - V. I. Receiving radioisotopes, M., 1972; Mash-kovsky M. D. Pharmaceuticals, p. 2, page 329, 373, M., 1977; With I eat e with N about in N. V. Biochemical components and constants of fluid mediums and tissues of the person, page 15, M., 1971; T about r h and N - with to y Yu. M. Seurat in proteins, M., 1977, bibliogr.; Whyte A., etc. Fundamentals of biochemistry, the lane with English, t. 2, page 939, M., 1981; Young L. and Municipal educational institution D. Metabolism of compounds of sulfur, the lane with English, M., 1961; Metabolism of sulfur compounds, ed. by D. M. Greenberg, v. 7, N. Y., 1975; Natural sulfur compounds, ed. by D. Ca-vallini and. lake, N. Y. — L., 1980; Table of isotopes, ed. by G. M. Lederer a. V. S. Shirley, N. Yv of 1978.
M. G. Uzbekov; V. V. Bochkaryov (I am glad.), V. K. Muratov (pharm.).