From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SULFIDE WATERS (hydrogen-sulfide waters) — mineral waters, concentration of sulfides in to-rykh not less than 10 mg/l make. Villages of century use in the preventive purposes and for treatment of a number of diseases of children and adults.

On the content of sulfides C. of century divide on slabosulfidny (10 — 50 mg/l), srednesulfidny (50 — 100 mg/l), strong sulphidic (100 — 250 mg/l), very strong sulphidic (250 — 500 mg/l), ultrastrong sulphidic (>500 mg/l).

S.'s mineralization of century and their temperature vary in wide limits (see. Mineralnye Vody ). Century contain in natural S. also nitrogen (see), methane (see), carbonic acid (see. Anhydride of carbonic acid ), sulfates (see), calcium (see), magnesium (see), sodium (see), chlorine (see).

The USSR is exclusively rich with S.'s fields of century. They are eurysynusic in many artesian basins of the European part of the country and the republics of Central Asia. Pages of century are successfully used for balneoterapiya (see) in many resorts, in sanatoria and balneolechebnitsa of Cisural area — Sergiyevsky Mineralnye Vody (see), Ust-Kachke (see), Keys, etc., Prikarpatye — Nemirov, Lyubene-Velikom (see), Truskavets (see), the North Caucasus — the Hot Key (see), Tamisk, Tal-gi, Sernovodske-Kavkazsky, Transcaucasia — Mendzhi, Shikhov, etc., Turkmenistan — Archman, Uzbekistan — Chimione, Tajikistan — Uch-Kyzyl, etc., Latvia — Kemeri (see), etc. (see. Resorts ). The most known and large-scale deposit C. of century in the USSR is Matsesta — Sochi (see. Sochi ) and Talgi in Dagestan ASSR. Quite simple methods of preparation of S. of century of any concentration are developed. These waters successfully apply to treatment in resorts where natural S. are absent century of willows to lay down. institutions out of resorts.

Lech. natural S.' properties of century were known to people still in the ancient time. Scientific justification to lay down. S.'s use belongs to the end of 19 century century. It was promoted by S. A. Smirnov's researches, after I. A. Oyvin, etc. After Great October socialist revolution studying of properties C. of century and development of the principles of therapy of S. of century continued in I. A. Valedinsky, N. P. Pravdin, A. I. Nesterov, M. M. Shikhov's works, etc.

In to lay down. the purposes use the natural and artificially prepared for S. century in the form of the general (less often) than local bathtubs (see. Bathtubs ), irrigations, microclysters (see. Enemas ). Water temperature, applied to the general bathtubs, 35 — 37 °, concentration of sulfides of 50 — 200 mg/l, duration of the procedure 8 — 12 min., procedures appoint every other day or in a row two days with the subsequent break in one day. The course consists of 12 — 14 procedures. At the sparing technique of treatment (especially concerning elderly people) duration of the procedure is reduced up to 5 — 10 min., concentration of sulfides in water — to 50 — 75 mg/l, number of procedures by a course — to 8 — 10. At an intensive technique of treatment duration of the procedure makes 10 — 15 min., concentration of sulfides in the water used for a bathtub, 100 — 200 mg/l, number of procedures on a course 12 — 15. The century which are warmed up to 36 — 38 °, duration of the procedure 10 — 20 min., daily or every other day, on a course 12 — 20 procedures apply S. to local bathtubs (manual or foot). After reception of a bathtub of the patient shall have a rest not less than 20 — 30 min. (it is desirable lying) in the restroom, continuing rest in chamber or at home (at out-patient treatment).

To children of a bathtub with S. of century appoint since low concentration of sulfides (25 — 50 mg/l), taking into account age of the child and the nature of a disease. Further if necessary concentration of sulfides in the water used for a bathtub can be brought to 100 mg/l. Duration of the procedure is gradually increased from 4 — 6 to 10 min., water temperature 36 — 37 °. Appoint 8 — 10 bathtubs to a course every other day.

Pages of century apply to irrigations (a vagina, the head, gums, etc.). Concentration of sulfides in water at the same time makes 100 — 150 mg/l though can reach 200 mg/l at a temperature of 36 — 38 °. Procedures are carried out every other day and two days running with a break for the 3rd day, all on a course 10 — 20 procedures.

For microclysters use S. century with concentration of sulfides of 50 — 100 mg/l at a temperature of 36 — 37 °, a single dose of 50 ml, carry out procedures daily or every other day, on a course 10 — 12 procedures.

The mechanism of action of S. of century, except mechanical and temperature irritation, is based by hl. obr. on headlights-makol. effect of sulfides that defines the nature of appointments corresponding balneoprotsedur. The quantity passed hydrosulphide through skin - and sulfide ions of subjects is more, than above their concentration in the century used by S., it is more than the area of the skin which is affected by some mineral water and it is more than duration of the procedure. It is established that, having got into blood, sulfides pass through a blood-brain barrier and through a nek-swarm time are found in liquor in a free and connected look.

Possessing pharmakol. activity, sulfides have also reflex and resorptive effect on various bodies and systems of an organism; nervous structures are especially sensitive to their action. The normalizing action of bathtubs from S. on a functional condition of c is established century. N of page, and also exteroceptors of skin. Bathtubs from S. century exert the expressed impact on blood circulation, cause a trichangiectasia and precapillary arteries (that is shown by a dermahemia), increase in speed of a blood-groove, volume of the circulating blood in unit of time, the stroke and minute output of blood. Under the influence of sulfide waters pulse urezhatsya, the number of respiratory movements in a minute decreases, breath becomes deeper.

Being strong reducers, sulfide ions in cells enter in redoxreactions (see) with proteins, including with enzymes, and with other physiologically active connections. Favorable action of S. of century on c. the N page, the central and peripheral hemodynamics, a condition of system of immunity, etc. allows to use these procedures at treatment various patol. states.

Indications to S.'s use diseases of cardiovascular and nervous systems, a musculoskeletal system, female generative organs, diseases of skin, hron serve century. intoxications salts of heavy metals (lead, mercury, etc.), toxic polyneurites, encephalitis, vibration disease.

Contraindications to S.'s use the same century, as for other balneoterapevtichesky factors (all diseases in an acute stage, cardiovascular diseases with disturbance of blood circulation of the II—III degree, far come atherosclerosis with the expressed defeat of vessels of heart and brain, stenocardia with often repeating attacks, etc.). Besides, S. are contraindicated to century at hron. diseases of a liver and biliary tract (at an exacerbation of a disease within the last year and incomplete remission), and also at bronchial asthma, diseases of kidneys and a pulmonary tuberculosis.

See also Sanatorium selection .

Bibliography: Balneoterapiya at diseases at children's age, under the editorship of T. V. Karachevtseva, page 55, M., 1980; Questions of hydrosulphuric therapy of nervous diseases, under the editorship of K. F. Nikitin and E. 3. Neymarka, M., 1964; Sulfide waters of the USSR, under the editorship of V. V. Ivanov, M., 1977; Bogoljubow W. M, S with h i-s with h 1 about M. A. u. To u b 1 i S. Ch. Anpas-sungsreaktionen des Organismus und intra-zellulare bioenergetische Prozesse unter Einwirkung physischer Faktoren, Z. Phy-siother., S. 81, 1980.

V. V. Ivanov, V. T. Olefirenko.