SUDAN, the Democratic Republic of the Sudan — the state in a northeast part of Africa. The area is 2505,8 thousand km 2 . The population apprx. 20 million people (1982, assessment). The capital — Khartoum (apprx. 2 million zhit., 1982). Administrative division — 8 regions. Ofits. language — Arab.
The head of state — the president. The legislature belongs to the president and Natsionalnokhm to people's assembly.
The most part of the territory is occupied with the plateau (300 — 1000 m above sea-level), in the north there are Libyan and Nubian deserts, in the West — the plateau Dafur and Kardafan, in the east — the spurs of the Ethiopian Highlands and Krasnomorsky mountains separating the narrow seaside lowland, in the south — spurs of Tsentralnoafrikansky mountains. All constant rivers belong to the basin of the Nile River. Climate transitional — from ekvatorialnomussonny in the south to desert tropical in the north.
Page — the agrarian country though it is processed only apprx. 3% of the territory. A primary branch of economy — the agriculture which in the north is preferential irrigated. Cultivate millet, an ambercane, wheat, corn, a peanut, sesame, cotton (for export), a date palm tree, etc. Collect arabic gum and leaves of Senna. Livestock production — major activity of the nomads and semi-nomads making apprx. 20% of all population. The industry is presented generally by the enterprises for processing of page - x. raw materials and to production of construction materials. From minerals iron, manganese and chromic ores, oil are extracted. Many enterprises are constructed by means of the Soviet Union.
Apprx. 70% of the population — Arabs, Nubians, a badge, the others — negroid nationalities (shiluk, Nuer, a dinka, etc.). Average population density 7 people on 1 sq.km (1978).
The natural movement of the population according to WHO for 1980 — 1984 (for 1000 zhit.): birth rate 45,3, general mortality 16,6, natural increase 28,7. Child mortality 117,8 on 1000 live-born. Average duration of the forthcoming life of men of 48 years, women of 50 years.
In the country are widespread inf. diseases. Most often are registered went. - kish. infections, tuberculosis, viral hepatitis, measles, diphtheria, trachoma, venereal diseases, etc. In 1975 it was registered apprx. 10 thousand cases of a leprosy, according to WHO total number of patients actually made apprx. 60 thousand. In 1979 the outbreak of plague (226 cases) took place and 207 cases of cholera were revealed. On the most part of the territory malaria is widespread. The high prevalence by a schistosomatosis, especially intestinal is noted; in certain areas it struck St. 60% of the population. In recent years spread of malaria and a schistosomatosis was promoted by development of irrigational network. There are centers of an onchocercosis, a skin and visceral leushmaniosis, a trypanosomiasis and an ankilosto-midoz. Often the diseases caused by proteinaceous and caloric insufficiency of food, acute respiratory infections and pneumonia meet. In structure of the general incidence increase in a share of cardiovascular diseases and malignant new growths is noted.
Work of health services will be organized by the Ministry for Health and Social Welfare. In 1981 in the country there were 160 medical institutions on 17 328 beds (9,2 beds on 10 thousand population), including 35 general BCs (9094 beds), 1.16 rural (7214 beds), 1 nursery (94 beds), 1 eye (125 beds), 1-tsa radiation therapy (40 beds) and 1-tsa for treatment of tropical - diseases (132 beds), 2-tsy for treatment of TB patients (420 beds). 1 psychiatric-tsa (94 beds), 1 maternity home (95 beds) and dental-tsa on 20 beds.
Extra hospital help in 1980 was given in out-patient departments of BC, and in rural areas also in 201 centers of health care, 736 clinics and 1901 dressing points. Names of healthcare institutions of S. and the content of their work not completely correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see Treatment and prevention facilities abroad).
Dignity. - a gigabyte. living conditions of the vast majority of the population remain low. High-quality drinking water provided only residents of the large cities, the modern system of the sewerage is available only in a number of the districts of Khartoum. In S. with assistance of WHO the expanded programme of immunization of children against measles, diphtheria, poliomyelitis, whooping cough, tetanus, tuberculosis is carried out; programs of fight against an onchocercosis, a trypanosomiasis, a leushmaniosis and a leprosy are carried out.
In 1981 in Sudan there were 2169 doctors (1,15 on 10 thousand zhit.), 13 693 nurses and their assistants, 376 midwifes and other medical personnel. Training of doctors is carried out on medical f-those Hartumsky un-that (the term of training of 6 years). The main attention is paid to preparation of an average and support medical personnel for expansion of coverage of the population, especially rural districts, primary medical - a dignity. help.
Significant assistance to Sudan in preparation of national shots of health care and strengthening of its material and technical resources was rendered by the Soviet Union and other socialist countries. With assistance of the USSR in Sobe (suburb of Khartoum) the hospital on 400 beds is constructed.
Bibliography: The fifth review of a condition of health care in the world (1969 — 1972), page 332, Geneva, 1977; Shch e p and O. P N. Problems of health care of developing countries. (On materials of the African continent), M., 1976; Demographic yearbook, p. 893, N. Y., 1978, p. 97, N. Y., 1979; Weekly epidemiological record, N 3, p. 19, 1979, N 35, p. 274, 1981; World health statistics annual 1978, v. 2, p. 9 v. 3, p. 15, Geneva, 1978; World health statistics annual 1980, Health personnel and hospital establishments, p. 33, Geneva, 1980.
V. V. Fedorov.